[354][355], Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. In the 21st century some reforms have taken place to improve the cultural rights of ethnic minorities in Turkey, such as the establishment of TRT Kurdî, TRT Arabi and TRT Avaz by the TRT. [175], The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia,[177] thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music. turquie / religion - La Turquie et la Russie ont exprimé l’espoir qu’une réunion très attendue du président Recep Tayyip Erdoğan et du président russe Vladimir Poutine aboutirait à un cessez-le-feu dans la province d’Idlib, en Syrie, où la tension a énormément augmenté la semaine dernière après que la Syrie a tué 34 soldats turcs lors d’une frappe aérienne le 28 février. Les trois quarts d’entre eux sont musulmans sunnites et … Turkey supported the coalition forces in the First Gulf War. The reforms aimed to transform the old religion-based and multi-communal Ottoman constitutional monarchy into a Turkish nation state that would be governed as a parliamentary republic under a secular constitution. [112] On 15 July 2016, an unsuccessful coup attempt tried to oust the government. [274] The eastern part of that coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. [173] The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with the US. Hora is performed in East Thrace; Zeybek in the Aegean Region, Southern Marmara and East-Central Anatolia Region; Teke in the Western Mediterranean Region; Kaşık Oyunları and Karşılama in West-Central Anatolia, Western Black Sea Region, Southern Marmara Region and Eastern Mediterranean Region; Horon in the Central and Eastern Black Sea Region; Halay in Eastern Anatolia and the Central Anatolia Region; and Bar and Lezginka in the Northeastern Anatolia Region. The first Turkish musicals were also written in this period. [225][226][227][228] Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 people have died, most of whom were Turkish Kurds. [184] These political rifts have left Turkey with few allies in the East Mediterranean, where rich natural gas fields have recently been discovered;[185][186] in sharp contrast with the original goals that were set by the former Foreign Minister (later Prime Minister) Ahmet Davutoğlu in his "zero problems with neighbours"[187][188] foreign policy doctrine. The arrival of Islam and the development of Islamic art also influenced Turkish carpet design. However, growth slowed to 1 percent in 2008, and in 2009 the Turkish economy was affected by the global financial crisis, with a recession of 5 percent. [242] 160 journalists have been imprisoned. L’islam sunnite After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005. Sujet d'actualité Au Québec l'accommodement raisonnable, un sujet d'actualité. [153], According to Article 142 of the Turkish Constitution, the organisation, duties and jurisdiction of the courts, their functions and the trial procedures are regulated by law. [145][146][147][148], In 2017 the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index rated Turkey at 4.88 (on a 0–10 scale), classifying Turkey as a hybrid regime. Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896 and 1923. [455] Known as Universal Health Insurance Genel Sağlık Sigortası, it is funded by a tax surcharge on employers, currently at 5%. The undersea pipeline, Turkish Stream, with an annual capacity around 63 billion cubic metres (2,200 billion cubic feet), will allow Turkey to resell Russian gas to Europe. The instructions for several ebru techniques in the text are accredited to this master. [513][514] By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk. [469] Charles A. Truxillo (2012), Jain Publishing Company, "Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War". [341][needs update], TÜBİTAK is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. Mais l'islam n'est pas religion d’État, contrairement aux pays musulmans. Other ethnic groups include Albanians, Arabs, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Georgians, Laz, Pomaks, and Roma. A theatrical conservatoire, Darülbedayi-i Osmani (which became the nucleus of the Istanbul City Theatres) was established in 1914. For the newspaper, see, Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace. Several ecumenical councils of the early Church were held in cities located in present-day Turkey including the First Council of Nicaea (Iznik) in 325, the First Council of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon (Kadıköy) in 451. Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km². [412][413] According to Aksiyon magazine, the number of Twelver Shias (excluding Alevis) is three million (4.2%). Representing Europe as the winner of the 2012–13 CEV Women's Champions League, Vakıfbank also became the world champion by winning the 2013 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship. The diversity of Turkey's fauna is even greater than that of its flora. [253][254] Asian Turkey, which includes 97 percent of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. Ce qui ne signifie pas du tout qu’elle soit négligeable ou n’ait pas de poids politique. [274] The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. [305] After the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the then finance minister, Kemal Derviş, inflation dropped to single-digit figures for the first time in decades (8% in 2005), investor confidence and foreign investment soared, and unemployment fell to 10% in 2005. In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols at the Battle of Köse Dağ, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate. [467] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era. The Dutch government called spying activities an "unwanted and non-acceptable … Pour Mustafa Kemal, il s’agit de faire en sorte que la Turquie échappe au sort réservé à l’ens… [385], Religion in Turkey (2019)[386][387][388][389], Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. Mais l'islam n'est pas religion dÉtat, contrairement aux pays musulmans. [357] Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity. [380] Turkey hosts the largest number of refugees in the world, including 3.6 million Syrian refugees, as of April 2020. They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, more illustrations than standalone works of art. Études Kurdes n° 3 : un numéro de la revue consacré principalement aux alévis de Turquie Haci Bayram Veli (1352 - 1429) : Philosophe mystique, turc. [444] Less than half of 25- to 34-year-old Turks have completed at least high school, compared with an OECD average of over 80 percent. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean was perceived as a threat to the Ottoman monopoly over the ancient trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras. A presidential system was adopted by referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018 and gives the President complete control of the executive, including the power to issue decrees, appoint his own cabinet, draw up the budget, dissolve parliament by calling early elections, and make appointments to the bureaucracy and the courts. The conflict between Turkey and the PKK (designated a terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States,[101] the European Union[102] and NATO[103]) has been active since 1984, primarily in the southeast of the country. Dans une situation contradictoire, elle a un statut assez ambigu. The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC,[36] although they have remained a minority in the region, namely in Hakkari, Şırnak and Mardin.[37]. [114][115], Between 9 October – 25 November 2019, Turkey conducted a military offensive into north-eastern Syria.[116][117][118]. [81][82][83] Following the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought to partition the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. Despite this, marbled motifs are commonly referred to as hatip designs in Turkey today. En juillet 2000, N. Erbakan est condamné à la prison pour « incitation à la haine raciale et religieuse ». Roderic. L’antisémitisme, en particulier dans les médias écrits et sur les réseaux sociaux, reste un problème en Turquie. [16] Beginning in the late 13th century, the Ottomans started uniting the principalities and conquering the Balkans, and the Turkification of Anatolia increased during the Ottoman period. [507] Edirne Province has hosted the annual Kırkpınar oil wrestling tournament since 1361, making it the oldest continuously held sporting competition in the world. [200] The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President. Des réponses à vos questions d’ordre interculturelles d’un point de vue local et un d’un point de vue canadien. The movement was also labelled Turkish Neoclassical or the National Architectural Renaissance. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available. C’est la confession des trois-quarts des habitants de la Turquie (Turcs et Kurdes). [494] Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 2000. The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit from the Caspian Sea basin to Europe. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. Islam institutionnel, islam parallèle De l'Empire ottoman à la Turquie contemporaine (XVIe-XXe siècles). Des partis politiques d’inspiration islamique sont nés. [44], All of modern-day Turkey was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th century BC. [45] The Greco-Persian Wars started when the Greek city states on the coast of Anatolia rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BC. Remaining challenges include the need to further increase wastewater treatment, to reduce the high level of non-revenue water hovering around 50% and to expand access to adequate sanitation in rural areas. - Le Milli Görüs (« Vision nationale », fondé en 1969 par Necmettin Erbakan)  : c’est la branche européenne du parti islamiste turc, bien implanté dans la diaspora turque en Allemagne (sous le nom d’Union turque d’Europe) et mal vue des autorités d’Ankara. [87] The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey. [289] The rate of female employment in Turkey was 30 percent in 2012,[290] the lowest among all OECD countries. The empire, eventually spanning from Austria and Ukraine to Arabia and North Africa, used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world. One early master by the pseudonym of Şebek is mentioned posthumously in the earliest Ottoman text on the art known as the Tertib-i Risâle-i Ebrî, which is dated based on internal evidence to after 1615. also driven by the European Charter of Local Self-Government and with Chapter 22 ("Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments") of the acquis of the European Union. [34] The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age. [340], Water supply and sanitation in Turkey is characterised by achievements and challenges. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center (UMET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI). In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I. [435] The Association of Atheism (Ateizm Derneği), the first official atheist organisation in the Balkans or Middle East, was founded in 2014. In 1071, the Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, starting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region. [195][196] In 2020, Turkey openly intervened in Libya at the request of the GNA. 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Le gouvernement assure en permanence la sécurité et la protection des synagogues. [459] In the late 19th century, human figure in the Western sense was being established in Turkish painting, especially with Osman Hamdi Bey. [11][367][368][369][370] Minority groups other than the three religious minorities recognised in the Treaty of Lausanne (Armenians, Greeks and Jews) do not have any official rights, and use of the minority languages of Turkey is restricted. Hors du champs religieux : La Franc-maçonerie In the early decades of the Turkish Republic, the government (or banks established and owned by the government, such as Türkiye İş Bankası (1924), Sanayi ve Maadin Bankası (1925), Emlak ve Eytam Bankası (1926), Central Bank of Turkey (1930), Sümerbank (1933), İller Bankası (1933), Etibank (1935), Denizbank (1937), Halk Bankası (1938), etc.) [384] Endangered languages in Turkey include Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Cappadocian Greek, Gagauz, Hértevin, Homshetsma, Kabard-Cherkes, Ladino (Judesmo), Laz, Mlahso, Pontic Greek, Romani, Suret, Turoyo, Ubykh, and Western Armenian. Elle a créé des formations paramilitaires en collaboration avec l’extrême droite (le MHP). [376][377][378], Immigration to Turkey is the process by which people migrate to Turkey to reside in the country. Religion; Le patrimoine chrétien, « manne » touristique pour la Turquie d’Erdogan . [255] The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (990 miles) long and 800 kilometres (500 miles) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. L'autre Turquie : Le mouvement aléviste et ses territoires The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, making sultans Mehmed V and Mehmed VI largely symbolic figureheads with no real political power. İsmet İnönü became Turkey's second President following Atatürk's death on 10 November 1938. [35], The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as c. 2300 BC. [297] Fossil fuel subsidies were around 0.2% of GDP for the first two decades of the 21st century,[298][299] and are higher than clean energy subsidies. Istanbul Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. In 2015, Aziz Sancar, a Turkish professor at the University of North Carolina, won the Nobel Chemistry Prize along with Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich, for their work on how cells repair damaged DNA. [252], Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. Or, dans les années 2000, la Turquie est majoritairement acquise à l’AKP quelle que soit la taille des villes. [64] The Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues, such as those in 1538, 1571, 1684 and 1717 (composed primarily of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy), for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. Not all were ethnic Turks; some were Muslim Albanians, Bosniaks, Greek Muslims, Muslim Serbs, Macedonian Muslims and Bulgarian Muslims. Today there are more than 120,000-320,000 people of various Christian denominations,[427] representing less than 0.2% of Turkey's population,[428] including an estimated 80,000 Oriental Orthodox, 35,000 Roman Catholics,[429] 18,000 Antiochian Greeks,[430] 5,000 Greek Orthodox and smaller numbers of Protestants. La Turquie moderne et l'islam [281] Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields. [12][17][18] From the late 18th century onwards, the empire's power declined with a gradual loss of territories and wars. The driest regions are the Konya Plain and the Malatya Plain, where annual rainfall is often less than 300 millimetres (12 inches). Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC as a powerful northern rival of Assyria. "[155], Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945),[159] the OECD (1961),[160] the OIC (1969),[161] the OSCE (1973),[162] the ECO (1985),[163] the BSEC (1992),[164] the D-8 (1997)[165] and the G20 (1999). However, the ban was lifted from universities in 2011, from government buildings in 2013,[396] from schools in 2014[397] and from the Armed Forces in 2017. [94] In the following year, the single-party period in Turkey came to an end, with the first multiparty elections in 1946. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether. Turkish Armed Forces contribute military personnel to the International Security Assistance Force, Kosovo Force, Eurocorps and EU Battlegroups. [274], The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. 115-116. [183] Diplomatic relations with Israel were also severed after the Gaza flotilla raid in 2010, but were normalised following a deal in June 2016. [462] The miniatures were usually not signed, perhaps because of the rejection of individualism, but also because the works were not created entirely by one person; the head painter designed the composition of the scene, and his apprentices drew the contours (which were called tahrir) with black or colored ink and then painted the miniature without creating an illusion of depth. [251], Amnesty International stated that it had gathered evidence of war crimes and other violations committed by Turkish and Turkey-backed Syrian forces who are said to "have displayed a shameful disregard for civilian life, carrying out serious violations and war crimes, including summary killings and unlawful attacks that have killed and injured civilians". According to the Address-Based Population Recording System of Turkey, the country's population was 74.7 million people in 2011,[351] nearly three-quarters of whom lived in towns and cities. Les Alévis : Les alévis. [207], Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since the Korean War, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Yugoslavia and the Horn of Africa. [138][139][140][141] Even before the constitutional referendum in 2017 the Council of Europe said the country had autocratic tendencies and warned of a "dramatic regression of [Turkey's] democratic order". Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. 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