[41], Following a suggestion by his friend and mentor Pedro de Córdoba, Las Casas petitioned a land grant to be allowed to establish a settlement in northern Venezuela at Cumaná. He was the principal organizer and champion of the 16th-century movement in Spain and Spanish America in defense of the Indians. – Protector of Indians. Las Casas and the commissioners traveled to Santo Domingo on separate ships, and Las Casas arrived two weeks later than the Hieronimytes. He became an influential figure at court and at the Council of the Indies. bartolom de las casas a biography Sep 19, 2020 Posted By Ann M. Martin Library TEXT ID b3396885 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library bartolome de las casas was a dominican priest from seville spain who briefly sought his fortune in the new world only a decade after columbus first voyage though he had He was there when Christopher Columbus went to Seville in 1493 after Columbus' first trip to the Americas. The colonist would only have rights to a certain portion of the total labor, so that a part of the Indians were always resting and taking care of the sick. 4.4 out of 5 stars 8. He also had to repeatedly defend himself against accusations of treason: someone, possibly Sepúlveda, denounced him to the Spanish Inquisition, but nothing came from the case. He proposed 12 other remedies, all having the specific aim of improving the situation for the Indians and limiting the powers that colonists were able to exercise over them.[84]. $64.99. His copy is notable because Columbus' diary itself was lost. [30] The regency of Castile passed on to Ximenez Cisneros and Adrian of Utrecht who were guardians for the under-age Prince Charles. This was meant simply to halt the decimation of the Indian population and to give the surviving Indians time to reconstitute themselves. His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies. "[24] Las Casas and his friend Pedro de la Rentería were awarded a joint encomienda which was rich in gold and slaves, located on the Arimao River close to Cienfuegos. Palais des Congrès de Pontevedra. In 1502, Las Casas finally went to see the family holdings in Hispaniola. Bartolom é de Las Casas was a missionary, Dominican theologian, historian, and bishop of Chiapas. Here, Las Casas argued, Indians could be better governed, better taught and indoctrinated in the Christian faith, and would be easier to protect from abuse than if they were in scattered settlements. . He became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed " Protector of the Indians ". Biography Dr. Cristina M. Casas, M.D. [13] As a young man, in 1507, he journeyed to Rome where he observed the Festival of Flutes. [100], Las Casas has also often been accused of exaggerating the atrocities he described in the Indies, some scholars holding that the initial population figures given by him were too high, which would make the population decline look worse than it actually was, and that epidemics of European disease were the prime cause of the population decline, not violence and exploitation. La date de naissance de Bartolomé de las Casas à Séville est controversée . Las Casas became a hacendado and slave owner, receiving a piece of land in the province of Cibao. Las Casas's group of friars established a Dominican presence in Rabinal, Sacapulas and Cobán. The first edition in translation was published in Dutch in 1578, during the religious persecution of Dutch Protestants by the Spanish crown, followed by editions in French (1578), English (1583), and German (1599) – all countries where religious wars were raging. Bartolomé de las Casas. Histoire du Mexique : Bartolome Las Casas. He was there when Christopher Columbus got to Seville in 1493 after Columbus' first trip to the Americas. [53] In 1538 Las Casas was recalled from his mission by Bishop Marroquín who wanted him to go to Mexico and then on to Spain to seek more Dominicans to assist in the mission. [71] Las Casas countered that the scriptures did not in fact support war against all heathens, only against certain Canaanite tribes; that the Indians were not at all uncivilized nor lacking social order; that peaceful mission was the only true way of converting the natives; and finally that some weak Indians suffering at the hands of stronger ones was preferable to all Indians suffering at the hands of Spaniards. He called for the abolition of slavery in the American peninsula. Wars in which you have destroyed such an infinite number of them by homicides and slaughters never heard of before. The accounts written by his enemies Lopez de Gómara and Oviedo were widely read and published. His father, Pedro de las Casas, and his uncle went to the Americas in the second voyage of Columbus that left in November 1493. Las Casas worked to recruit a large number of peasants who would want to travel to the islands, where they would be given lands to farm, cash advances, and the tools and resources they needed to establish themselves there. Bartolomé de Las Casas est fils d'un modeste marchand de Tarifa. Arriving as one of the first Spanish (and European) settlers in the Americas, Las Casas initially participated in, but eventually felt compelled to oppose, the abuses committed by colonists against the Native Americans. The first edition published in Spain after Las Casas's death appeared in Barcelona during the Catalan Revolt of 1646. He put his faith in his coming audience with the king, but it never came, for King Ferdinand died on January 25, 1516. He drafted a suggestion for an amendment arguing that the laws against slavery were formulated in such a way that it presupposed that violent conquest would still be carried out, and he encouraged once again beginning a phase of peaceful colonization by peasants instead of soldiers. In 1537, Las Casas wanted to try again to demonstrate that Indigenous people could be interacted with peacefully and that violence and conquest were unnecessary. "[89] This work in which Las Casas combined his own ethnographic observations with those of other writers, and compared customs and cultures between different peoples, has been characterized as an early beginning of the discipline of anthropology. During this time the Hieronimytes had time to form a more pragmatic view of the situation than the one advocated by Las Casas; their position was precarious as every encomendero on the Islands was fiercely against any attempts to curtail their use of native labour. While he was gone the native Caribs attacked the settlement of Cumaná, burned it to the ground and killed four of Las Casas's men. [90], The History of the Indies is a three-volume work begun in 1527 while Las Casas was in the Convent of Puerto de Plata. [65] After a year he had made himself so unpopular among the Spaniards of the area that he had to leave. [78], In 1561, he finished his Historia de las Indias and signed it over to the College of San Gregorio, stipulating that it could not be published until after forty years. (Latin America Otherwise. He was able to persuade the crown to allow him to send missionaries to a region in north-central Guatemala where the Indigenous people had proved particularly fierce. [102][103], The Dominican friars Antonio de Montesinos and Pedro de Córdoba had reported extensive violence already in the first decade of the conquest of the Indies, and throughout the conquest of the Americas, there were reports of abuse of the natives by friars and priests and ordinary citizens, and many massacres of indigenous people were reported in full by those who perpetrated them. During the next years, he divided his time between being a colonist and his duties as an ordained priest. Bartolome de Las Casas was born in Seville, Spain in 1474 or 1484. Las Casas came to the America’s as part of the colonial expeditions from Spain, arriving in 1502 in Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic), at the very beginning of the encounter between the Europeans and the people of the Americas. Setting the Record Straight on Christopher Columbus, Biography of Hernán Cortés, Ruthless Conquistador, Biography of Pedro de Alvarado, Conquistador, Spain's American Colonies and the Encomienda System, The Founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, “Indians, Slaves, and Mass Murder: The Hidden History.”. PhD dissertation, Harvard University 1982. De hecho se encontraron varios símbolos satánicos en las paredes de las casas donde mató a sus víctimas. To secure the grant, Las Casas had to go through a long court fight against Bishop Fonseca and his supporters Gonzalo de Oviedo and Bishop Quevedo of Tierra Firme. (Vol II, p. 257)[93]. Sometimes indigenous nobility even related their cases to him in Spain, for example, the Nahua noble Francisco Tenamaztle from Nochistlán. Kämpfte gegen die Versklavung und Misshandlung der Indianer durch spanische Konquistadoren und erwirkte einen gesetzlichen Schutz der Indianer in allen neueroberten Gebieten Amerikas; wurde 1547 … Gunst, Laurie. This book, written a decade earlier and sent to the attention of then-prince Philip II of Spain, contained accounts of the abuses committed by some Spaniards against Native Americans during the early stages of colonization. Las Casas appointed a vicar for his diocese and set out for Europe in December 1546, arriving in Lisbon in April 1547 and in Spain on November 1547. [65] Las Casas furthermore threatened that anyone who mistreated Indians within his jurisdiction would be excommunicated. His father, of humble origin, could accurately be described as a nouveau riche. Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566) was a Spanish priest, social reformer, and historian. Though widely disparaged in the years after his death for his critiques of colonialism, Las Casas is now seen as a significant early reformer whose work helped pave the way for the liberation theology movement of the 20th century. [5] In 1522, he tried to launch a new kind of peaceful colonialism on the coast of Venezuela, but this venture failed. [55], But apart from the clerical business, Las Casas had also traveled to Spain for his own purpose: to continue the struggle against the colonists' mistreatment of the Indians. Man nimmt an, dass Las Casas 1497 als Soldat nach Granada ging. Bartolomé de Las Casas "A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies" (1542) Excerpt - Duration: 3:37. henn863 35,197 views. In 1548 the Crown decreed that all copies of Las Casas's Confesionario be burnt, and his Franciscan adversary, Motolinia obliged and sent back a report to Spain. This letter, which reinvoked the old conflict over the requirements for the sacrament of baptism between the two orders, was intended to bring Las Casas in disfavour. He traveled to Central America, acting as a missionary among the Maya of Guatemala and participating in debates among colonial churchmen about how best to bring the natives to the Christian faith. Las Casas himself was granted the official title of Protector of the Indians, and given a yearly salary of one hundred pesos. The rumours even included him among the dead. Geboren am: 00.00.1474. Las Casas was born at Seville in 1474. Las Casas was resolved to see Prince Charles who resided in Flanders, but on his way there he passed Madrid and delivered to the regents a written account of the situation in the Indies and his proposed remedies. He was one of the first people to settle in the New World. He participated in campaigns at Bayamo and Camagüey and in the massacre of Hatuey. It was republished several times by groups that were critical of the Spanish realm for political or religious reasons. San Francisco, CA 94132. They were not impressed by his account, and Las Casas had to find a different avenue of change. However, the reforms were so unpopular back in the New World that riots broke out and threats were made against Las Casas's life. Residencial Las Casas in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico is named after Las Casas. Positions held: – Ordained priest in 1506. In 1555 his old Franciscan adversary Toribio de Benavente Motolinia wrote a letter in which he described Las Casas as an ignorant, arrogant troublemaker. A common soldier under Columbus in his first voyage to the New World, he acquired enough wealth in the Indies to send his son to the prestigious University of Salamanca. Where Are the Remains of Christopher Columbus? Among those they equaled were the Greeks and the Romans, and they surpassed them by many good and better customs. Facts about Bartolome de Las Casas 4: African slaves. Bartolomé de las Casas has 93 books on Goodreads with 9098 ratings. Bartolomé de Las Casas (c. 1484-July 18, 1566) was a Spanish Dominican friar who became famous for his defense of the rights of the native people of the Americas. [75], Having resigned the Bishopric of Chiapas, Las Casas spent the rest of his life working closely with the imperial court in matters relating to the Indies. Unfortunately, the region that was selected had been heavily raided by enslavers, and the Indigenous peoples' hostility toward the Europeans was too intense to overcome. Las Casas entered the Dominican Order and became a friar, leaving public life for a decade. Services Location & Hours Main Location. Bartolomé de las Casas was a 16th-century Spanish landowner, friar, priest, and bishop, famed as a historian and social reformer. [64] As a bishop Las Casas was involved in frequent conflicts with the encomenderos and secular laity of his diocese: among the landowners there was the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Biography of Bartolomé de Las Casas, Spanish Colonist. Another important part of the plan was to introduce a new kind of sustainable colonization, and Las Casas advocated supporting the migration of Spanish peasants to the Indies where they would introduce small-scale farming and agriculture, a kind of colonization that didn't rely on resource depletion and Indian labor. Pp. [1]Terrängen runt Las Casas är huvudsakligen kuperad, men åt nordost är den bergig. Il est célèbre pour avoir défendu la cause des Amérindiens et dénoncé les violences espagnoles. [51] As a direct result of the debates between the Dominicans and Franciscans and spurred on by Las Casas's treatise, Pope Paul III promulgated the Bull "Sublimis Deus," which stated that the Indians were rational beings and should be brought peacefully to the faith as such.[52]. [31] In this early work, Las Casas advocated importing black slaves from Africa to relieve the suffering Indians, a stance he later retracted, becoming an advocate for the Africans in the colonies as well. Il est né à Séville en 1484 et meurt à Madrid en 1566. He arrived in Hispaniola as a layman then became a Dominican friar and priest. Having been summoned to a meeting among the bishops of New Spain to be held in Mexico City on January 12, 1546, he left his diocese, never to return. Biography of Bartolomé de las Casas (1474-1566) Dominican priest, chronicler, theologian, Bishop of Chiapas in Mexico and champion of native Americans, considered the Apostle of the Indies, was born in Seville in 1474 and died in Madrid in 1566. [61], Before Las Casas returned to Spain, he was also appointed as Bishop of Chiapas, a newly established diocese of which he took possession in 1545 upon his return to the New World. Biography Bartolome de Las Casas was born in Seville, Spain in 1484. He decided instead to undertake a personal venture which would not rely on the support of others, and fought to win a land grant on the American mainland which was in its earliest stage of colonization. Las Casas also asked for and received a section of the Venezuelan mainland for an experiment. [1] Den ligger i kommunen Santa María Zoquitlán och delstaten Oaxaca, i den sydöstra delen av landet, 400 km sydost om huvudstaden Mexico City.Las Casas ligger 1 382 meter över havet [1] och antalet invånare är 136. Las Casas worked there in adverse conditions for the following months, being constantly harassed by the Spanish pearl fishers of Cubagua island who traded slaves for alcohol with the natives. Las Casas doit affronter sur ce point le frère Juan Ginès de Sepulveda (60 ans), chapelain de l'empereur et théologien émérite. [118], The small town of Lascassas, Tennessee, in the United States has also been named after him. The experiment was called Verapaz, or “true peace,” and the region still bears the name. Location of death: Bartolomé de las Casas died in 18th July 1566 in Madrid (Spain). [48] In 1534 Las Casas made an attempt to travel to Peru to observe the first stages of conquest of that region by Francisco Pizarro. Later in life, Las Casas became a prolific writer, traveled frequently between the New World and Spain, and made allies and enemies in all corners of the Spanish Empire. Las Casas' role was as a missionary, working to convert the natives to Catholicism. Las Casas resolved to meet instead with the young king Charles I. Ximenez died on November 8, and the young King arrived in Valladolid on November 25, 1517. That said, finding fifty men willing to invest 200 ducats each and three years of unpaid work proved impossible for Las Casas. He ended up leaving in November 1520 with just a small group of peasants, paying for the venture with money borrowed from his brother in-law. Las Casas managed to secure the support of the king's Flemish courtiers, including the powerful Chancellor Jean de la Sauvage. New York: Da Capo Press, 1992 (408-412). This resulted in a new resolution to be presented to viceroy Mendoza. Crédit image : artiste inconnu, XVI e siècle. He described the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.[2]. Bartolome de Las Casas was born in Seville, Spain in 1484. It has also been noted that exaggeration of numbers was the norm in writing in 16th-century accounts, and both contemporary detractors and supporters of Las Casas were guilty of similar exaggerations. "[20] Las Casas himself argued against the Dominicans in favour of the justice of the encomienda. Benjamin Keen likewise did not consider Las Casas to have had any substantial impact on the slave trade, which was well in place before he began writing. Tatsächlich geschah dies erst 1875. The second part of the Memorial described suggestions for the social and political organization of Indian communities relative to colonial ones. [107], Revisionist histories of the late 20th century have argued for a more nuanced image of Las Casas, suggesting that he was neither a saint nor a fanatic but a person with exceptional willpower and a sense of justice, which sometimes led him into arrogance, stubbornness, and hypocrisy. Bartolomé de Las Casas Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566) was a Spanish priest, social reformer, and historian. He is said to have preached, "Tell me by what right of justice do you hold these Indians in such a cruel and horrible servitude? It found its final form in 1561, when he was working in the Colegio de San Gregorio. Bartolomé de las Casas (November 1484 – July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. Las Casas advocated the dismantlement of the city of Asunción and the subsequent gathering of Indians into communities of about 1,000 Indians to be situated as satellites of Spanish towns or mining areas. “Clayton has written a wonderful biography of Las Casas--churchman, thinker, author, reformer and crusader for justice. in 1596. He was appointed as the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". He believed he could pacify Indigenous people with religion rather than weapons. El 20 de septiembre de 1989 fue condenado por el asesinato de 13 personas. "The base continued in operation until 1946, when it was closed. Las Casas maintained that they were fully human, and that forcefully subjugating them was unjustifiable. [35] In keeping with the legal and moral doctrine of the time Las Casas believed that slavery could be justified if it was the result of Just War, and at the time he assumed that the enslavement of Africans was justified. Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exploration: An Encyclopedia. [19] In December 1511, a Dominican preacher Fray Antonio de Montesinos preached a fiery sermon that implicated the colonists in the genocide of the native peoples. The judges then deliberated on the arguments presented for several months before coming to a verdict. In Spain, Las Casas started securing official support for the Guatemalan mission, and he managed to get a royal decree forbidding secular intrusion into the Verapaces for the following five years. He was there when Christopher Columbus got to Seville in 1493 after Columbus' first trip to the Americas. Sepúlveda addressed Las Casas's arguments with twelve refutations, which were again countered by Las Casas. [77], One matter in which he invested much effort was the political situation of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Though he had Indian slaves in the encomendero system, he soon freed them after a conversion experience. [101] The overwhelming main cause was disease introduced by the Europeans. [15] He participated in slave raids and military expeditions against the native Taíno population of Hispaniola. In 1531, he wrote a letter to Garcia Manrique, Count of Osorno, protesting again the mistreatment of the Indians and advocating a return to his original reform plan of 1516. He began his missionary work in Haiti, Cuba, Venezuela, and Guatemala in 1502. Bartolomé de Las Casas, (born 1474 or 1484, Sevilla?, Spain—died July 1566, Madrid), early Spanish historian and Dominican missionary who was the first to expose the oppression of indigenous peoples by Europeans in the Americas and to call for the abolition of slavery there. [7], Bartolomé de las Casas was born in Seville in 1484, on 11 November. Bartolomé de las Casas Personnage historique. This is a short history of the age of exploration and the conquest of the Americas told through the experience of Bartolomé de las Casas, a Dominican friar who fervently defended the American Indians, and the single most important figure of the period after Columbus. In this new office Las Casas was expected to serve as an advisor to the new governors with regard to Indian issues, to speak the case of the Indians in court and send reports back to Spain. By 1502 he was a lawyer and went to Hispaniola, an island in the West Indies, to manage a newly acquired estate. In fact it was not published for 314 years, until 1875. Young Bartolomé, then about 9 years old, was in Seville when Columbus returned from his first voyage in 1493; he might have met members of the Taíno tribe who Columbus enslaved and brought back with him from the Americas. Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exploration: An Encyclopedia. Additionally, Las Casas. His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies. [119], He is a central character in the H. R. Hays historical novel The Takers of the City, published in 1946.[120]. It was on these trips that he began to question the actions of the Spanish soldiers who often used extreme violence to subdue and control the Amerindians. 7 offers from $24.00. The young man accompanied the governor on two different military missions aimed at pacifying Indigenous people who remained on the island. Später begann er ein Lateinstudium in Sevilla und ein kurzes Jura- und Theologiestudium an der berühmten Universität von Salamanca. Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar is a reconstructed 18th-century Filipino settlement that showcases the best of Filipino heritage and culture through the colorful stories as retold by José “Jerry” Acuzar’s collection of restored Spanish-Filipino houses. Verstorben am: 31.07.1566. In addition, his critique towards the colonizers served to bring awareness to his audience on the true meaning of Christianity, to dismantle any misconceptions on evangelization. Las Casas was devastated by the tragic result of his peasant migration scheme, which he felt had been thwarted by his enemies. The connection between the two families was strong: Bartolomé's father eventually interceded with the pope on the matter of securing certain rights on behalf of Columbus' son Diego, and Bartolomé de Las Casas himself edited Columbus' travel journals. Biography of Fray Bartolomé de las Casas Location of birth: Bartolomé de las Casas was born in 1484 in Seville (Spain). Las Casas feared that at the rate the exploitation was proceeding it would be too late to hinder their annihilation unless action were taken rapidly. This was easier thought than done, as most of the people who were in positions of power were themselves either encomenderos or otherwise profiting from the influx of wealth from the Indies. He was appointed as the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". Sie sollte auf seinen Wunsch hin erst nach seinem Tod veröffentlich werden. Check out this biography to know about his childhood, family life, achievements, and timeline. He decided to reform the system. Beide wurden erst im 20. [74], In 1552, Las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. The emperor sent Pedro de la Gasca, a friend of Las Casas, to reinstate the rule of law, and he in turn defeated Pizarro. At first, Bartolomé de Las Casas participated in the persecution of the native people of the New World. [37], Three Hieronymite monks, Luis de Figueroa, Bernardino de Manzanedo and Alonso de Santo Domingo, were selected as commissioners to take over the authority of the Indies. 595 Buckingham Way Ste 355. 1485 wird Bartolomé de Las Casas in Sevilla, Spanien, in eine altchristliche Familie geboren. They surpassed also the English and the French and some of the people of our own Spain; and they were incomparably superior to countless others, in having good customs and lacking many evil ones. The colonists, led by Diego Columbus, dispatched a complaint against the Dominicans to the King, and the Dominicans were recalled from Hispaniola.[21][22]. Bartolomé de las Casas, né à Séville en 1484 et mort à Madrid le 17 juillet 1566, est un prêtre dominicain, écrivain et historien espagnol. One detractor, the abolitionist David Walker, called Las Casas a "wretch... stimulated by sordid avarice only," holding him responsible for the enslavement of thousands of Africans. Special offers and product promotions. ... Like one who kills a son before his father's eyes is the man who offers sacrifice from the property of the poor. [99] Menéndez Pelayo also accused Las Casas of having been instrumental in suppressing the publication of Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda's "Democrates Alter" (also called Democrates Secundus) out of spite, but other historians find that to be unlikely since it was rejected by the theologians of both Alcalá and Salamanca, who were unlikely to be influenced by Las Casas. He was also one of the first Europeans to openly condemn the atrocities committed by Europeans on the Native Indians of the Latin American lands and the West Indies. The arrival of a group of Dominican friars in 1509, who immediately denounce… Las Casas graduated from the University of Salamanca. [87], The images described by Las Casas were later depicted by Theodore de Bry in copper plate engravings that helped expand the Black Legend against Spain. His brave stand against the horrors of the conquest and the colonization of the New World earned him the title “Defender of the Indigenous peoples." All warfare was illegal and unjust and only through the papal mandate of peacefully bringing Christianity to heathen peoples could "Just Titles" be acquired. [9] Subsequent biographers and authors have generally accepted and reflected this revision. War ab 1515 Indianermissionar in Mittelamerika. They did revoke some encomiendas from Spaniards, especially those who were living in Spain and not on the islands themselves; they even repossessed the encomienda of Fonseca, the Bishop of Burgos. Biography of Antonio de Montesinos, Defender of Indigenous Rights, Essential Facts About the South Carolina Colony, The Second Voyage of Christopher Columbus, Biography of Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, Conquistador, Biography of Christopher Columbus, Italian Explorer. Bartolomé de las Casas. [29] In the winter of 1515, King Ferdinand lay ill in Plasencia, but Las Casas was able to get a letter of introduction to the king from the Archbishop of Seville, Diego de Deza. La plupart des sources contemporaines affirment désormais que la da… Sepúlveda argued that the subjugation of certain Indians was warranted because of their sins against Natural Law; that their low level of civilization required civilized masters to maintain social order; that they should be made Christian and that this in turn required them to be pacified; and that only the Spanish could defend weak Indians against the abuses of the stronger ones. Las Casas's supporters were Diego Columbus and the new chancellor Gattinara. It is well known that Las Casas fought for justice and freedom for Indigenous people of the New World, but it is frequently overlooked that his love for his countrymen was just as powerful. Originally planned as a six-volume work, each volume describes a decade of the history of the Indies from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 to 1520, and most of it is an eye-witness account. Founded in 1515, there was already a small Franciscan monastery in Cumana, and a Dominican one at Chiribichi, but the monks there were being harassed by Spaniards operating slave raids from the nearby Island of Cubagua.