No evidence of other large scale immigrations took place and many scholars deny Celtic speech originated solely from La Tene culture, whose migrations started at about 400 BC. There has been some evidence of all-corded pottery in Majorca, generally considered the most ancient Bell Beaker pottery, possibly indicating an even earlier Beaker settlement about 2700 BC. *Continental type. The flexed skeleton of a man 1.88 tall in a cist in a slightly oval round cairn with "food vessel" at Cornaclery, County Londonderry, was described in the 1942 excavation report as "typifying the race of Beaker Folk", [Male sizes range between 157 cm and 191 cm, to average 174 cm, comparable to the current male population: Flanagan 1998, p.116] although the differences between Irish finds and e.g. *Schuhmacher, T.X. Concurrent introduction of metallurgy shows that some people must have crossed cultural boundaries. Bell Beaker Culture in Bavaria used a specific type of copper, which is characterized by combinations of trace elements. Previously archeology considered the Bell-beaker people to have lived only within a limited territory of the Carpathian Basin and for a short time, without mixing with the local population. As for the "settlements and monuments" within the Iberian context, Beaker pottery is generally found in association with local Chalcolithic material and appears most of all as an "intrusion" from the 3rd millennium in burial monuments whose origin may go back to the 4th or 5th millennium BC. Lanting/van der Waals 1976 a) and were succeeded c. 2300 BC by beakers of the Veluwe and Epi-Maritime style. Although controversial, the theory fits according to its proponents the archeological evidence that provides little support for westward migrations of Celtic people matching the historically known movements south and west. Cremation was also common. In Denmark, large areas of forested land were cleared to be used for pasture and the growing of cereals during the Single Grave Culture and in the Late Neolithic Period. 1600 BC–1200 BC)*Urnfield culture (ca. *O’Flaherty, R. (2007) A Weapon of Choice: experiments with a replica Irish early Bronze Age Halberd, "Antiquity" 81, 425-434*O'Kelly, M.J. (1982) "Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend." After 2000BC, other copper sources supersede Ross Island. In addition, two thirds of copper artefacts from Britain also display the same chemical and isotopic signature, strongly suggesting that Irish copper was a major export to Britain (Northover "et al" 2001). The site was located on the summit of a spur. ): "The Beginnings of Metallurgy." Domestic sites with Beakers only appear 200-300 years after the first appearance of Bell Beakers in Europe, at the early part of the Danish Late Neolithic Period (LN I) starting at 2350 BC. Torento: Servizio Beni Culturali Ufficio Beni Archeologici, pp361-377*Charles, J.A. Concurrent introduction of metallurgy shows that some people must have crossed cultural boundaries. It's center of difussion is probably in the Portuguese civlization of Vila Nova de São Pedro. ISBN 84-249-1015-X.] [LOS ORÍGENES DEL POBLAMIENTO BALEAR, UNA DISCUSIÓN NO ACABADA - Manuel Calvo Trias, Víctor M. Guerrero Ayuso, Bartomeu Salvà Simonet, Complutum, 13, 2002: 159-191 I.S.S.N. It is contemporary to Corded Ware in the vicinity, that has been attested by associated finds of middle Corded Ware (chronologically referred to as "beaker group 2" or Step B) and younger Geiselgasteig Corded Ware beakers ("beaker group 3" or Step C). The abundance of different cultural elements that persisted towards the end of the Bronze Age, show a clear continuity of different regional and intrusive traditions.The presence of perforated Beaker pottery, traditionally considered to be used for making cheese, at Son Ferrandell-Oleza (Waldren 1998: 95) and at Coval Simó (Coll 2000), confirms the introduction of production and conservation of dairy. Slightly earlier dates of true bell beaker pottery have been obtained in Portugal by carbon dating, confirming the interpretation of the Bell Beaker horizon as essentially a cultural phenomenon. *Laurence Flanagan, "Ancient Ireland, Life before the Celts", 1998, Gil & MacMillan, ISBN 0-7171-2433-9.*R. In Nicolis, F. The latest workings from the Ross Island mines is dated to around 1700BC.As well as exporting raw copper/bronze, there were some technical and cultural developments in Ireland that had an important impact on other areas of Europe. Traces of Ross Island copper can be found even further afield; in the Netherlands it makes up 12% of analysed copper artefacts, and Brittany 6% of analysed copper artefacts (Northover 1999, 214). Many barrows surround it and an unusual number of ‘rich’ burials can be found nearby, such as the Amesbury Archer. This type decorated with narrow dotted bands, filled with slanted parallel lines, and usually made of a reddish-orange clay, is found all around the Iberian peninsula and southern France, often associated to Megalthism. The LN I copper flat axes divide into As-Sb-Ni copper, recalling so-called Dutch Bell Beaker copper and the As-Ni copper found occasionally in British and Irish Beaker contexts, the mining region of Dutch Bell Beaker copper being perhaps Brittany; and the Early Bronze Age Singen (As-Sb-Ag-Ni) and Ösenring (As-Sb-Ag) coppers having a central European – probably Alpine – origin. They were subsequently widely adopted in other parts of Europe (Schuhmacher 2002), possibly showing a change in the technology of warfare.The Bronze Age Beaker period is noteworthy, since archeological finds seem to indicate a strong continuity with native Bronze Age traditions in Ireland as much as Britain. *O’Flaherty, R. (2007) A Weapon of Choice: experiments with a replica Irish early Bronze Age Halberd, "Antiquity" 81, 425-434*O'Kelly, M.J. (1982) "Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend." However, neither of these items were deposited in graves and they tend to be found isolated and at random, making it difficult to draw conclusions about their use or role in society at the time.One of the most important sites in Ireland during this period is Ross Island. The Danish Beaker period, however, was characterized by the manufacture of lanceolate flint daggers, described as a completely new material form without local antecedents in flint and clearly related to the style of daggers circulating elsewhere in Beaker dominated Europe. 4500 BC–2500 BC)*Únětice culture (ca. One of the most important sites in Ireland during this period is Ross Island. "Antiquity" 49, 19-25*Darvill, T., "Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology", 2002, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019-211649-5. Kisapostag and Gáta-Wieselburg cultures) suggested a mixture with the local population contradicting such archaeological theories. Previously archeology considered the Bell-beaker people to have lived only within a limited territory of the Carpathian Basin and for a short time, without mixing with the local population. [Flanagan 1998, p.104-105 and 111-114] The vase tradition has a general distribution and feature almost exclusively cremation. They are essentially broad blades that were mounted horizontally on a meter long handle, giving greater reach and impact than any known contemporary weapon (O’Flaherty 2007). Instead, those scholars propose Celtic languages evolved gradually and simultaneously over a large area by way of a common heritage and close social, political and religious links. The site demonstrates a notable absence of more common Bell Beaker pottery styles such as Maritime Herringbone and Maritime Lined varieties found in nearby sites like Castanheiro do Vento and Crasto de Palheiros. Irish food vessels were adopted in northern Britain around 2200BC and this roughly coincides with a decline in the use of beakers in Britain (Needham 1996). It is also found in the plateau, the Guadalquivir basin and northern Morocco. *Almerian type is typical of the Los Millares civilization and neighbouring areas. *Almerian type is typical of the Los Millares civilization and neighbouring areas. The frequent occurrence of Beaker pottery in settlements points at a large-scaled form of social identity or cultural identity, or perhaps an ethnic identity.In eastern Denmark and Scania one-person graves occur primarily in flat grave cemeteries. Also non-metrical research concerning the Beaker people in BritainA Test of Non-metrical Analysis as Applied to the 'Beaker Problem' - Natasha Grace Bartels,University of Albeda, Department of Anthropology, 1998 [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp01/MQ34298.pdf] ] , less prone to criticism against the influence of genetics and taking into consideration a genetic "threshold" towards the expression of a particular physical trait at certain environmental conditions (Hauser and De Stefàno 1989:4-5), led to ambiguous results, on the one hand pointing to the direction of immigration and on the other hand failing to provide conclusive evidence of the arrival of people of another genetical type. Bell Beaker related material has now been uncovered in a line from the Baltic Sea down to the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea, including countries such as Bielo-Russia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, Albania and even Greece.The Eastern Border of the Bell Beaker-Phenomenon - Volker Heyd, 2004 [www.bris.ac.uk/archanth/staff/heyd/Krakow1.pdf] ] The Bell Beaker culture settlements in Southern Germany and in the East-Group show evidence of mixed farming and animal husbandry, and indicators such as millstones and spindle whorls prove the sedentary character of the Bell Beaker people, and the durability of their settlements. In east central Sweden and western Sweden, barbed wire decoration characterised the period 2460–1990 BC, linked to another Beaker derivation of northwestern Europe. A significant impulse given to metallurgy accompanied vascular production characterized by a disappearance of earlier St.Micheal (Ozieri) fanciful decoration in favor of blank soberly scribbled surfaces. *Palmela type replaces the International style in the area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal) c. 1900 BCE. It is also found in the plateau, the Guadalquivir basin and northern Morocco. Three of them were carbon dated to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC. 2300 BC–1600 BC)*Tumulus culture (ca. The frequent occurrence of Beaker pottery in settlements points at a large-scaled form of social identity or cultural identity, or perhaps an ethnic identity.In eastern Denmark and Scania one-person graves occur primarily in flat grave cemeteries. [Flanagan 1998, p.78] Classification of pottery in Ireland and Britain has distinguished a total of seven intrusiveFlanagan 1998, p.82] beaker groups originating from the continent and three groups of purely insular character having evolved from them. Another site of particular interest is Ferriby on the Humber estuary, where western Europe’s oldest plank built boat was recovered.JutlandIn Denmark, large areas of forested land were cleared to be used for pasture and the growing of cereals during the Single Grave Culture and in the Late Neolithic Period. ISBN 84-249-1015-X.] It is found specially in the Mediterranean areas but also reaches to the Basque Country and Badajoz. 4500 BC–2700 BC)*Chasséen culture (ca. 1800 BC.ardiniaFrom the earliest period, Sardinia has been in contact with extra-insular communities in Corsica, Liguria, Lombardy, and Provence. This is a continuation of the burial custom characterising the Scanian Battle-axe Culture, oftern to continue into the early Late Neolithic. The frequent occurrence of Beaker pottery in settlements points at a large-scaled form of social identity or cultural identity, or perhaps an ethnic identity.In eastern Denmark and Scania one-person graves occur primarily in flat grave cemeteries. 1600 BC–1200 BC)*Urnfield culture (ca. Apel (2001, 42; 323ff) argued that an institutionalised apprenticeship system must have existed craftsman-ship was transmitted by inheritance in certain families living in the vicinity of abundant resources of high-quality flint. The abundance of different cultural elements that persisted towards the end of the Bronze Age, show a clear continuity of different regional and intrusive traditions.The presence of perforated Beaker pottery, traditionally considered to be used for making cheese, at Son Ferrandell-Oleza (Waldren 1998: 95) and at Coval Simó (Coll 2000), confirms the introduction of production and conservation of dairy. However, another possibility is the general circulation of Bell Beaker pottery, in its diverse styles and regional adaptations, in a short space of time during the 3rd millennium BC. Debbie Olausson’s (1997) examinations indicate that flint knapping activities, particularly the manufacture of daggers, reflect a relatively low degree of craft specialisation, probably in the form of a division of labour between households.Noteworthy was the adoption of European-style woven wool clothes kept together by pins and buttons in contrast to the earlier usage of clothing made of leather and plant fibres. Their greater concentration in the northern part of the country,Flanagan 1998, p.78] which traditionally is regarded as the part of Ireland least blessed with sources of copper, has led many authorities to question the role of Beaker People in the introduction of metallurgy to Ireland. also Thorpe/Richards 1984; Lohof 1994; Strahm 1998] The connection with the East Group Beakers of Únětice had intensified considerably in LN II, thus triggering a new social transformation and innovations in metallurgy that would announce the actual beginning of the Northern Bronze Age. Also, the spread of metallurgy in Denmark is intimately related to the Beaker representation in northern Jutland. In Denmark, this mode of building houses is clearly rooted in a Middle Neolithic tradition. Flint arrow-heads and tanged copper daggers, found in association with Beaker pottery in many other parts of Europe, have a date later than the initial phase of Beaker People activity in Ireland.Flanagan 1998, p.88] Also the typical Beaker wristguards seem to have entered Ireland by cultural diffusion only, after the first intrusions, and unlike English and Continental Beaker burials never made it to the graves. The interaction between the Beaker groups on the Veluwe Plain and in Jutland must, at least initially, have been quite intensive. In Britain, domestic assemblages from this period are very rare, making it hard to draw conclusions about many aspects of society. The flexed skeleton of a man 1.88 tall in a cist in a slightly oval round cairn with "food vessel" at Cornaclery, County Londonderry, was described in the 1942 excavation report as "typifying the race of Beaker Folk", [Male sizes range between 157 cm and 191 cm, to average 174 cm, comparable to the current male population: Flanagan 1998, p.116] although the differences between Irish finds and e.g. The latest workings from the Ross Island mines is dated to around 1700BC.As well as exporting raw copper/bronze, there were some technical and cultural developments in Ireland that had an important impact on other areas of Europe. A similar picture of cultural integration is was featured among Bell Beakers in central Europe, thus challenging previous theories of Bell Beakers as an elitist or purely super-structural phenomenon. Along with other evidence during the earlier Beaker period in the Balearics, circa 2400-2000 BC, as shown by the local presence of elephant ivory objects together with significant Beaker pottery and other finds (Waldren 1979 and Waldren 1998), this maritime interaction can be shown to have a long tradition. Suárez Otero (1997) postulated this corded Beakers entered the mediterranean by routes both through the Atlantic coast and through eastern France. [Flanagan 1998, p.78] Classification of pottery in Ireland and Britain has distinguished a total of seven intrusiveFlanagan 1998, p.82] beaker groups originating from the continent and three groups of purely insular character having evolved from them. Younger Bell Beaker Culture of Early Bronze Age shows analogies to the Proto-Únětice Culture in Moravia and the Early Nagyrév Culture of the Carpathian Basin.During the Bell Beaker period a border runs through southern Germany, which dividesculturally a northern from a southern area. Five out of seven of the intrusive Beaker groups also appear in Ireland: the European bell group, the All-over cord beakers, the Northern British/North Rhine beakers, the Northern British/Middle Rhine beakers and the Wessex/Middle Rhine beakers. ): "The Beginnings of Metallurgy." A gold ornament found in County Down that closely resembles a pair of ear-rings from Ermegeira, Portugal, has a composition that suggests it was imported. Towards the transition to LN II some farm houses became extraordinarily large.The cultural concepts originally adopted from Beaker groups at the lower Rhine blended or integrated with local Late Neolithic Culture. [A Review of the Early Late Neolithic Period in Denmark: Practice, Identity and Connectivity - Helle Vandkilde, 2005, Aarhus [http://www.jungsteinsite.uni-kiel.de/pdf/2005_vandkilde_low.pdf] ] ee also*Amesbury Archer*European Megalithic Culture*Mount Pleasant Period*Nebra skydisk*Prehistoric Britain*Prehistoric Iberia*Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures*Linear Pottery culture (6th to 5th millennia BC)*Funnelbeaker culture (ca. Towards the middle of the 3rd millennium ВС, two areas would thus be distinguished: on the one hand, … Before the turn of the millennium the typical Beaker features had gone, their total duration being 200–300 years at the most. [Flanagan 1998, p.91] Beaker culture introduces the practice of burial in single graves, suggesting an Earlier Bronze Age social organisation of family groups. The latter comprise Veluwe and Epi-Maritime in Continental northwestern Europe and the Middle Style Beakers (Style 2) in insular western Europe. [Flanagan 1998, p.150] Towards the Later Bronze Age the sites move to potentially fortifiable hilltops, suggesting a more "clan"-type structure. Kisapostag and Gáta-Wieselburg cultures) suggested a mixture with the local population contradicting such archaeological theories. Although controversial, the theory fits according to its proponents the archeological evidence that provides little support for westward migrations of Celtic people matching the historically known movements south and west. These sites are concentrated in northern Jutland around the Limfjord and on the Djursland peninsula, largely contemporary to the local Upper Grave Period. Most LN I metal objects are distinctly influenced by the western European Beaker metal industry, gold sheet ornaments and copper flat axes being the predominant metal objects. Bell Beaker pottery has been found in Majorca and Formentera but has not been observed in Minorca or Ibiza. The latter comprise Veluwe and Epi-Maritime in Continental northwestern Europe and the Middle Style Beakers (Style 2) in insular western Europe. Noting the distribution of Beakers was highest in areas of transport routes, including fording sites, river valleys and mountain passes, it was suggested that Beaker 'folk' were originally bronze traders, who subsequently settled within local Neolithic or early chalcolithic cultures creating local styles. It is found specially in the Mediterranean areas but also reaches to the Basque Country and Badajoz. A specific variant is the Ciempozuelos type, made of gray or black clay. Danish Beakers are contemporary with the earliest Early Bronze Age (EBA) of the East Group of Bell Beakers in central Europe, and with the floruit of Beaker cultures of the West Group in western Europe. Instead, those scholars propose Celtic languages evolved gradually and simultaneously over a large area by way of a common heritage and close social, political and religious links. The LN I copper flat axes divide into As-Sb-Ni copper, recalling so-called Dutch Bell Beaker copper and the As-Ni copper found occasionally in British and Irish Beaker contexts, the mining region of Dutch Bell Beaker copper being perhaps Brittany; and the Early Bronze Age Singen (As-Sb-Ag-Ni) and Ösenring (As-Sb-Ag) coppers having a central European – probably Alpine – origin.The Beaker group in northern Jutland forms an integrated part of the western European Beaker Culture, while western Jutland provided a link between the Lower Rhine area and northern Jutland.

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