The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons, usually occurring between October and March. [579][580], Other domestic reforms include significant regulations restricting the powers of the religious police and establishing a national entertainment authority that has hosted comedy shows, pro wrestling events, and monster truck rallies. [109], The new kingdom was reliant on limited agriculture and pilgrimage revenues. The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. [156][158] When prince Sultan died before ascending to the throne on 21 October 2011, King Abdullah appointed Prince Nayef as crown prince. [197] Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure. [553] A woman can only obtain a divorce with the consent of her husband or judicially if her husband has harmed her. [317], The United Kingdom has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since 1965. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in Western Asia, the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria), the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. Afrika | An average of 300 mm (12 in) of rainfall occurs during this period, which is about 60 percent of the annual precipitation. To date, the activities of the NSHR have been limited and doubts remain over its neutrality and independence. There are no jury trials in Saudi Arabia and courts observe few formalities. Editions Safed, 2001 - Israel - 158 pages. They were beaten, tortured and electrocuted. Malaysia | [462] In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. It led to rapid technological (but not cultural) modernization, urbanization, mass public education and the creation of new media. Indien | [311], The United States sold more than $80 billion in military hardware between 1951 and 2006 to the Saudi military. [230] The $15 billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia is believed to be the largest arms sale in Canadian history. [93] Ottoman degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority. Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. "[233] According to former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, "Saudi Arabia remains a critical financial support base for al-Qaida, the Taliban, LeT and other terrorist groups... Donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide. [198], The Saudi system of justice has been criticized for its "ultra-puritanical judges", who are often harsh in their sentencing (with beheading for the crime of witchcraft), but also sometimes overly lenient (for cases of rape or wife-beating) and slow, for example leaving thousands of abandoned women unable to secure a divorce. [121], Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the government. Saudi-US relations took an ugly turn on 14 October 2018, when Trump promised "severe punishment" if the royal court was responsible for Khashoggis’ death. government. Atheism or "calling into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based" is considered a terrorist crime. Japan (Tennō)* | Le Prince d'Arabie saoudite by Joachim Reichenthal, 2001, Editions Safed edition, in French / français In 1966 an earthwork in Tarout exposed an ancient burial field that yielded a large, impressive statue dating to the Dilmunite period (mid 3rd millennium BC). Annual rainfall is extremely low. Vietnam | [70], At the end of the 7th century BC, an emerging kingdom appeared on the historical theater of north-western Arabia. Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September 2014. President of the International Rescue Committee David Miliband called the US announcement as "the most significant breakthrough in the war in Yemen for four years". For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel-hair cloak (bisht) over the top. [535] More traditional sports such as horse racing and camel racing are also popular. Since 2000, the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the Blue Hole (Red Sea) at Dahab). Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes. Asien | [285] The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi-led intervention and blockade of the rebel-held area. In 2007, King Abdullah issued royal decrees reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system,[194] and, in 2009, the King made a number of significant changes to the judiciary's personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation. Born 12.3.1971, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. [80], The vast wealth generated by oil revenues was beginning to have an even greater impact on Saudi society. Kebabs and falafel are popular, as is shāwarmā (shawarma), a marinated grilled meat dish of lamb, mutton, or chicken. [185] The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud (the royal family)[186] with whom they formed a "mutual support pact"[187] and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. Kirgisistan | Joachim Reichenthal. Proponents call the movement "Salafism",[444] and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions. [270] Saudi Arabia was also involved in the CIA-led Timber Sycamore covert operation to train and arm Syrian rebels. [337], Saudi Arabia has a "Counter-Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous (sic)" and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith, such as tolerance and moderation. [123] However, open protest against the government, even if peaceful, is not tolerated. Singapur | Arabia underwent an extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary that led to profound evolutionary and demographic changes. [204] The death penalty can be imposed for a wide range of offences including murder, rape, armed robbery, repeated drug use, apostasy, adultery, witchcraft and sorcery and can be carried out by beheading with a sword, stoning or firing squad, followed by crucifixion. [586], The Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had envisaged the year 2020 in line with his modernization plans, where a record number of Muslims were to visit the Mecca and Medina, new industries were to set up, entertainment sector was meant to flourish, while the crown prince was to host the G20 summit. [498] Shia also face systematic discrimination in employment, education, the justice system according to Human Rights Watch. Al-Magar statues were made from local stone, and it seems that the statues were fixed in a central building that might have had a significant role on the social and religious life of the inhabitants. [465] Le prince d'Arabie Saoudite : [un grand roman de politique-fiction] by Joachim Reichenthal Print book: Fiction: French. Oman | Mohammed Al-Jadaan said that the country will take “painful” measures and keep all options open to deal with the impact. Türkei | [330] An example of sentencing is that of UK pensioner and cancer victim Karl Andree, aged 74, who faced 360 lashes for home brewing alcohol. [226], Saudi Arabia and the United States are strategic allies,[227][228] and since President Barack Obama took office in 2009, the US has sold $110 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia. These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners. Né le 12.3.1971 à Riyadh, Arabie Saoudite. [133], Since 2001, Saudi Arabia has engaged in widespread internet censorship. In August 2014 both countries appeared to be exploring ways of ending the rift. [221] The embargo caused an oil crisis with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy. Select from premium Arabie Saoudite Photos of the highest quality. [468][f], Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims. Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine. 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[224] The two main allegations are that, by its nature, Wahhabism encourages intolerance and promotes terrorism. [3][597], Memorization by rote of large parts of the Qur'an, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum. [141] The most powerful clan faction is known as the 'Sudairi Seven', comprising the late King Fahd and his full brothers and their descendants. [145], The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority—particularly in the Eastern Province; and long-standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents (for example in the Hejaz). [582][583][584], On 27 September 2019, Saudi Arabia announced new changes to tourist visas for non-religious visits, allowing citizens of 49 countries to apply for E-Visa for 90 days. The local dairy manufacturing company Almarai is the largest vertically integrated dairy company in the Middle East. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll. [58], In the Neolithic period, prominent cultures such as Al-Magar, whose center lay in modern-day southwestern Najd flourished. Durch den Zweiten Golfkrieg, bei dem amerikanische und andere westliche Truppen auf saudischem Territorium stationiert wurden, geriet die Dynastie der Saud Anfang der 1990er Jahre in eine schwere Legitimitätskrise. As of October 2018, Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Schon um 1500 wurde der Wadi Hanifa kontrolliert und regierten die Sauds eines der bedeutendsten Fürstentümer in Zentralarabien. In the 1994 FIFA World Cup under the leadership of Jorge Solari, Saudi Arabia beat both Belgium and Morocco in the group stage before falling to defeat Sweden in the round of 16. [71] The third state occurred during the early 3rd century BC with bursting economic activity between the south and north that made Lihyan acquire large influence suitable to its strategic position on the caravan road. Recent Activity. | [260] The tentative rapprochement between the US and Iran that began in secret in 2011[261] was said to be feared by the Saudis,[262] and, during the run up to the widely welcomed deal on Iran's nuclear programme that capped the first stage of US–Iranian détente, Robert Jordan, who was US ambassador to Riyadh from 2001 to 2003, said "[t]he Saudis' worst nightmare would be the [Obama] administration striking a grand bargain with Iran. Iran (ORechtsg. [236][237][238][239] In the first decade of the 21st century the Saudi Arabia paid approximately $100 million to American firms to lobby the U.S. [258], The consequences of the 2003 invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran's influence in the region. Oberbegriffe: [1] État. [400] According to a report published by Bloomberg Economics in 2018, the government needs to produce 700,000 jobs by 2020 to meet its 9% unemployment target. [16] Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades. Segregated seating, allowing women to enter, has been developed in three stadiums across major cities. Durch diese bis heute bestehende Verbindung der Verbreitung des für die Wahhabiten wahren Islams und der Machtinteressen der Saud-Familie begann die Vereinigung des Nadschd mit der Unterwerfung der Beduinenstämme. [183], The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh,[184] the country's leading religious family. [225] Counting only the non-Muslim-majority countries, Saudi Arabia has paid for the construction of 1359 mosques, 210 Islamic centres, 202 colleges and 2000 schools. [505], Saudi Wahhabism is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk' (idolatry), and the most significant historic Muslim sites (in Mecca and Medina) are located in the western Saudi region of the Hejaz. LE ROYAUME D ARABIE SAOUDITE (3,845.36 mi) Douai, France 59500. The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero,[447] as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam (apostasy) and punishes it by death. [citation needed]. Portrait. [420] Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia. Are you sure you want to remove Le Prince d'Arabie saoudite from this list? Organization. Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. Le prince d'Arabie Saoudite. [495], Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events. [80], After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. [436][437] Estimates of the Sunni population of Saudi Arabia range between 75% and 90%, with the remaining 10–25% being Shia Muslim. Als 1973 diese Organisation den Ölpreis anhob, führte dies zur Ölkrise und zu erheblichen wirtschaftlichen Problemen der westlichen Industrieländer. [549][550], According to a leading Saudi feminist and journalist, Wajeha al-Huwaider, "Saudi women are weak, no matter how high their status, even the 'pampered' ones among them, because they have no law to protect them from attack by anyone. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, known as KAUST, founded recently in 2009. There are six elements inscribed on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list:[516] Al-Qatt Al-Asiri, female traditional interior wall decoration in Asir; Almezmar, drumming and dancing with sticks; Falconry, a living human heritage; Arabic coffee, a symbol of generosity; Majlis, a cultural and social space; Alardah Alnajdiyah, dance, drumming and poetry in Saudi Arabia. However, experts such as Joan Oates had the opportunity to see the Ubaid period sherds in eastern Arabia and consequently conclude that the sherds dates to the last two phases of Ubaid period (period three and four), while handful examples could be classified roughly as either Ubaid 3 or Ubaid 2. [598] As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA. The rate of local unemployment is 12.9%, its highest in more than a decade. [129][130], Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011,[131][132] Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the 2015 municipal elections, and also to be nominated to the Shura Council. [468] As a consequence, under Saudi rule, an estimated 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished for religious reasons. "[483], Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have "religious police" (known as Haia or Mutaween), who patrol the streets "enjoining good and forbidding wrong" by enforcing dress codes, strict separation of men and women, attendance at prayer (salat) five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia (Islamic law). [479] Neither Saudi citizens nor guest workers have the right of freedom of religion. [554] With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portions of the deceased's estate must be left to the Qur'anic heirs[555] and generally, female heirs receive half the portion of male heirs. [60] Aside from horses, animals such as sheep, goats, dogs, in particular of the Saluki race, ostriches, falcons and fish were discovered in the form of stone statues and rock engravings. Reflecting the country's dominant desert conditions, Saudi Arabia's plant life mostly consists of herbs, plants and shrubs that require little water. [340] In September 2015, Faisal bin Hassan Trad, Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the UN in Geneva, has been elected Chair of the United Nations Human Rights Council panel that appoints independent experts. Saudi Arabia is one of just three countries which officially supported the Taliban regime. Many of the migrants died due to heatstroke or by attempting suicide, after being severely beaten and tortured. [568], In August 2013, a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. Korea, Nord- (ParlPräs. [601] Critics have described the education system as "medieval" and that its primary goal "is to maintain the rule of absolute monarchy by casting it as the ordained protector of the faith, and that Islam is at war with other faiths and cultures". [87] The vassals of Ormuz, the Shia Jarwanid dynasty came to rule eastern Arabia in the 14th century. 2001 [Paris] Safed 3. [142][490] For many years only two religious holidays were publicly recognized – ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā. [394] The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities are projected to contribute $150 billion to the GDP.

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