The capital city Trabzon was founded, as Trapezus, by Greek colonists from Sinope, modern Sinop, Turkey.Starting from the 9th century BC, the city had also been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Herodotus, Hesiodos. Due to the castle built by former inhabitants which resembled a table and the stones shaped like a table found by miners for the purpose of establishing colonies there. In the 17th century the Russian Don Cossacks began to plunder the coasts of Black sea. His successors, the Grand Comneni, reigned longer than any other Byzantine family, forming extensive alliances through marriage with foreign rulers and promoting their prestige through the cult of St. Eugenius and the glorification of their real or legendary achievements. 2018 … Later Greek authors mentioned the Macrones and the Chalybes as native peoples. Introduction. Eating out is relatively … by Sam Topalidis. Remarkably attractive throughout its history, Trabzon was the subject of hundreds of travel books by western travellers, some of whom had named it "city of tale in the East." Founded by Greek traders from Miletus in the 8th century BC, Trabzon has been handballed down the years between Cimmerians, Medes, Hellenes, Byzantines and a succession of other peoples. The Hayasa, who had been in conflict with the Central-Anatolian Hittites in the 14th century BCE, are believed to have lived in the area south of Trabzon. Lonely Planet. Omer Pasha, the governor of Trabzon then, organized a … Somewhat louche, it's the most sophisticated city in the region, too caught up in its own whirl of activity to worry about what's … The Trabzon Football League (Turkish: Trabzon Futbol Ligi) was founded as a regional football league for Trabzon based clubs in 1922. It is linked by air with Ankara and by steamer service with Istanbul. All rights reserved. The city centre is enclosed on the east and west by walls that date from Byzantine times. Trabzon has a rooted history of civilizations starting from the 9th century B.C. Formed in 1967 through a merger, Trabzonspor's history dates back to two of the clubs, the foundation year of İdmanocağı and İdmangücü. In 1582 the Trabzon - Batum state, whose capital was Trabzon, was established. Both in Pontic Greek and Modern Greek, it is called Τραπεζούντα (Trapezounta). Trabzon was settled by Greeks probably by the 7 th century BC (Tsetskhladze 1994 see Note 1), but there were indigenous people already living in the area. In the 17th century the Russian Don Cossacks began to plunder the coasts of Black sea. The mansion was built in the beginning of the 1900s as a private residence for Kostaki Teophylaktos, a notable banker of Greek origin. Omissions? Trabzon has dozens of churches and mosques dating from the Byzantine period, the Empire of Trebizond and the Ottoman Empire. I can unsubscribe any time using the unsubscribe link at the end of all emails. It was founded by Greeks in the 8th century BC and existed as a colony of Sinope. It is known that the architect was of Italian origin and many materials … During antiquity it was known as Trapezus. Omer Pasha, the governor of Trabzon then, organized a fleet and stopped these attacks. Trabzon is the site of the Black Sea Technical University, established in 1963. The oldest graffiti carved in the apses of the church contain the dates 1291 and 1293. The Trapezuntine rulers became skilful at balancing their alliances with the Seljuks, the Mongols, the Genoese and others. After Mehmed II … History. Trapezunda rose to be an important city in terms of trade during the time of the Roman Empire; its position allowing it to … The empire of Trebizond, however, continued a separate existence until 1461; its small silver pieces, called “Comnenian white money,” were prized for their purity and enjoyed a wide currency. Introduction. In 1582 the Trabzon - Batum state, whose capital was Trabzon, was established. Trabzon is a coastal city so the cuisine is mainly based on fish dishes. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. By 1936, this reduced … (τράπεζα meant "table" in Ancient Greek; note the table on the coin in the figure.) Prospering through trade with eastern Anatolia and Persia, the empire reached the height of its wealth and culture during the reign of Alexius II (1297–1330), after which it fell to pieces in factional disputes. Castle Of Trabzon. This article tells the story from the foundation of the first clubs in the port city of Trabzon. History Of Trabzon. gallery; history of trabzon; social life; strategic location; touristic attractions; hazelnut cultivars; photo gallery. The commercial quarter is centred around a bazaar and park in the eastern part of the city near the old Genoese castle of Leontocastron; east of this lies the harbour. You can The capital city Trabzon was … by colonists from neighboring Sinop. history of trabzon . No part of this site may be reproduced without our written permission. gallery; history of trabzon; social life; strategic location; touristic attractions; hazelnut cultivars; photo gallery. The Hagia Sophia church was turned into a mosque. Like many other Black Sea sites, it is associated in legend with the Amazon women warriors. During Ottoman times, Tara Bozan was also used. city, 243,735; province, 757,898. Media in category "History of Trabzon" The following 69 files are in this category, out of 69 total. Trabzonspor is one of the "4 big clubs"in Turkish football. Through such means the influence of Byzantine types was exerted on the contemporary coinages of Armenia and elsewhere in…, In 1461 Trebizond, capital of the last remnant of Greek empire, which had maintained its precarious independence by paying court to Turks and Mongols alike, finally succumbed; the transformation of the Byzantine world into the Ottoman world was at last complete.…. It is the second largest Turkish urban centre (after Samsun) on the Black Sea. update your settings Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Modern Trabzon retains much of its medieval aspect. History. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Aya Sofya (Hagia Sophia), Trabzon, Turkey. As the Byzantine port nearest to Armenia, lying on a critical frontier of the empire, the city was rebuilt and figured prominently in the eastern campaigns of the emperor Justinian I (reigned 527–565). Its prosperity lay partly in export of its own products—silver, iron, alum, cloth, and black wine—and partly from taxes on transit trade to western Iran. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Its founders are not known; however, it is said that they were the Turkish Tribes came from Middle Asia over Caucasus. The city was founded in the 7th century B.C. Castle of Trabzon is one of the impressive and memorable places of this city, despite of that there are only ruins preserved from the past. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Only remnants of the past are left over. The large variety of crops grown include tobacco, fruits, and hazelnuts. The Hagia Sophia church was turned into a mosque. Trabzon is a town with over 230,000 people (2009 census – it is currently believed to be over 300,000) on the northeast Turkish Black Sea coast at latitude 41°00′ north and longitude 39°45′ east (Figure 1). A lot of history … The end of the dynasty came when its territories were annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1461. For centuries it was on one of the leading trade routes between Europe and Central Asia, and it prospered particularly after the 13th century, when it served as the chief port for Tabriz and western Iran. Historically known as Trapezus, Trebizond and Trapezunda by Greeks, the city of Trabzon in north-eastern Turkey boasts a rich Hellenic past. | Founded by Greek traders from Miletus in the 8th century BC, Trabzon has been handballed down the years between Cimmerians, … One of the dominant Caucasian groups to the east were the Laz, who were p… Hagia Sophia was built in Trebizond during the reign of Manuel I between 1238 and 1263. I want emails from Lonely Planet with travel and product information, promotions, advertisements, third-party offers, and surveys. Updates? In 1930, Trabzon’s share of the Persian transit trade had fallen to less than 4% compared to 53% before World War I (Aydemir and Aydemir 2007). © Its significance declined, however, with the construction of the Ankara-Erzurum railway about 1900 and the development of the southern Iranian port of Khorramshahr. Before the city was founded as a Greek colony the area was dominated by Colchian (Caucasian) and Chaldian (Anatolian) tribes. In 1915, during the Armenian Genocide, they were massacred and deported. by clicking the Privacy policy link at the bottom of the page. The town did reasonably well for 2000 years, occupying itself with port activities, until the Christian soldiers of the Fourth Crusade seized and sacked Constantinople in 1204, forcing its noble families to seek refuge in Anatolia. Trabzon become o Greek colony of some note during the 6th century B.C. by colonists from neighboring Sinop. Tafur estimated the town had about 4,000 inhabitants (Lowry 2009). Hagia Sophia of Trabzon is considered one of the best-preserved buildings created in the Late-Byzantine style of architecture, and it also embodies the same tense history of religious conversion as its … The imperial family of the Comneni established an empire along the Black Sea coast in 1204, with Alexius Comnenus I reigning as the emperor of Trebizond. during most of the deportations. Even so, the Empire of Trebizond survived until the coming of the Ottomans in 1461, holding out for eight years longer than Constantinople. The church is a domed basilica with superb 13th-century wall paintings that were revealed and cleaned during 1957–63. One of the most significant civilizations traced through the written sources is the Byzantine Greek Empire of Trebizund, which … The city’s later revitalization has largely resulted from improvement in its port facilities and communications. borsa kuruculari. In the 9th century the city was made the capital of a new military province of Chaldia. Trabzon in more recent times. About Trabzon; Accommodation Facilities; Getting Here and Around; Traditional Life and Handicraſts; Nature and Climate; The History of Trabzon; Trabzon’s Cuisine; FAQ; DESTINATIONS + SEASONS. Trabzon is a town with over 300,000 people in northeast Turkey on the Black Sea coast (Figure 1). The Turkish name of the city is Trabzon. When the Ottoman Empire was defeated after WWI, Trabzon’s many Greek residents sought to establish a Republic of Trebizond echoing the old Comneni Empire, but the Turks were ultimately victorious, and Atatürk himself declared Trabzon ‘one of the richest, strongest and most sensitive sources of trust for the Turkish Republic’. It was in the 13th century that the monastery took its present-day form when it received monetary richness from the likes of Alexios III (1349-1390) of the Komnenian Empire of Trabzon (or Trebizond), an empire established in 1204. That is sad because the castle represented the city‘s history and past. Trabzon is the terminus of the most practicable route over the mountains from Erzurum. The city was founded in the 7th century B.C. It is not necessary to visit the site/sight if you have got few days only for the exploration of Trabzon. History Trabzon’s recorded history begins around 746 BC, when Miletus colonists came from Sinop and founded a settlement, Trapezus, with an acropolis on the trápeza (table) of land above the harbour. 13. The 3 parts of this fort are Upper … Prior to World War I, the vibrant Armenian community of Trabzon numbered 30,000. (2000) city, 214,949; province, 975,137; (2013 est.) Contact Lonely Planet. During antiquity it was known as Trapezus. In the period from 1924 to 1935, the winners of the Trabzon League qualified for the former Turkish Football Championship.In the following period from 1940 to 1951, the Trabzon … Trabzon, historically and socio-culturally the most important centre of Eastern Black Sea Region, has a history of approximately 5000 years. It is believed that the founders of the city came to Trabzon from Middle Asia by passing over the Caucasus. It had turned back many invading armies through the years, except for the Goths, who captured and burned the city in the 3rd century A.D. Trabzon remained independent and free during the … Pop. Trabzon … History Of Trabzon. The Citadel was held by the Ottoman Pasha and a Janissary garrison. Historical monuments include most of the city walls, a part of the palace of the Grand Comneni, and several Byzantine churches preserved as mosques. Trabzon become o Greek colony of some note during the … Tags: Castle, Historical Site, Fort. Trapezus, one of the most easterly of ancient Greek settlements, was probably founded in 756 bce by colonists from Sinope (modern Sinop ). In August 1461, the Emperor of Trebizond, David Komnenos, surrendered Trabzon … It was settled by Greeks by the 7th century BC in an area occupied by indigenous people (Tsetskhladze 1994). 1. It is possible that the settlement origins of Trabzon go back to these tribes. The closest record of the population of Trabzon prior to the Ottoman conquest of Trabzon was by Pero Tafur who visited Trabzon in 1437–38. Trabzon Hagia Sophia Museum: History in Trabzon - See 579 traveler reviews, 846 candid photos, and great deals for Trabzon, Turkey, at Tripadvisor. Trabzon was the ancient capital of the Greek speaking Komnenos Byzantine Kingdom (1204–1461) within the Pontos—the northeast portion of Anatolia adjacent the Black Sea. Although it has moved with the times, and in the city square a Burger King restaurant was extremely busy. It was founded by Greeks in the 8th century BC and existed as a colony of Sinope… After the Russian capture of Trabzon, some … we use cookies to improve your experience on our website. Trabzon’s recorded history begins around 746 BC, when Miletus colonists came from Sinop and founded a settlement, Trapezus, with an acropolis on the trápeza (table) of land above the harbour. Xenophon, who reached Trabzon in February, 400 B.C, states that Trabzon (Trapezus) was by the Black Sea (Pontus Eukseinos) and was a colony of Sinop set up in the land of the Kolkhs by the Hellenes. Once an important stop on the Silk Road, it remains the Black Sea's busiest port. In the 18 th century, the family which held the eastern suburbs was particularly oppressive (Bryer 1969). During the classical period the city at least had temples for Hermes (the god … Area province, 1,907 square miles (4,938 square km). Among the churches the best preserved and most remarkable is the church Aya Sofya (Hagia Sophia), now used as a museum, which overlooks the sea just west of the city centre. about trabzon Trabzon was founded in 2000 BC. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Trabzon-Turkey. Trabzon was settled by Greeks probably by the 7 th century BC (Tsetskhladze 1994 see Note 1), but there were indigenous people already living in the area. 2) The Russian Navy dominated the Black Sea and literally "blockaded" the Turkish ports … … After the sack of Constantinople (now Istanbul) by the Crusaders in 1204, two grandsons of the emperor Andronicus I Comnenus escaped and founded an independent offshoot of the Byzantine Empire at Trapezus, with Prince Alexius Comnenus as emperor. Media in category "History of Trabzon" The following 69 files are in this category, out of 69 total. In the 13th century, Trabzon and the surrounding areas started to fall under control of a new formation called the Komnenos Dynasty, which developed as a separate state of the Byzantium Empire. The heart of the city is on a triangle of tableland between two deep ravines, with remains of an ancient Roman-built harbour at its base. It lies on a wide bay on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea backed by high ranges of the Pontic Mountains, which separate it from the central Anatolian Plateau. Trabzon, also called Trebizond, historically Trapezus, city, capital of Trabzon il (province), northeastern Turkey. Like many other Black Sea sites, it is associated in legend with the Amazon women warriors. The city prospered under Roman rule until it was sacked by the Goths after their victory over the emperor Valerian’s forces about 257 ce. This castle is situated in the Northwest of Turkey and dates back to the Byzantine Era when it was built with stone. It was later restored in the 6th century by General Belisarius at the request of the Emperor Justinian. Trabzon is said to be the site on which the army called the Ten Thousand by the writer Xenophon, who was one of its members, reached the sea after its long march that followed defeat in 401 bce. Explore Trabzon holidays and discover the best time and places to visit. In Ottoman Turkish and Persian, it is written as طربزون. Trabzon History. Trapezus, one of the most easterly of ancient Greek settlements, was probably founded in 756 bce by colonists from Sinope (modern Sinop). Trabzon itself was divided into three timariot holdings: the eastern suburbs and western suburbs and the lower walled city. One of the finest Ottoman monuments is the mosque and mausoleum of Gülbahar, wife of Sultan Bayezid II (reigned 1481–1512). Trabzon became their capital and the princes titled themselves as … Some western geographers used thi… history of trabzon . The word “Trapeza” synonymous with “table” was then converted to Trabzon … Historically known as Trapezus, Trebizond and Trapezunda by Greeks, the city of Trabzon in north-eastern Turkey boasts a rich Hellenic past. Remarkably attractive throughout its history, Trabzon was the subject of hundreds of travel books by western travellers, some of whom had named it "city of tale in the East." In Latin, Trabzon was called Trapezus, which is the latinization of the Ancient Greek Τραπεζοῦς (Trapezous), the first name of the city. At its southern end stands a ruined citadel. Trabzon Kalesi: Great history from the past - See 37 traveler reviews, 19 candid photos, and great deals for Trabzon, Turkey, at Tripadvisor. Small deposits of copper, lead, and iron are worked. Today the city is named Trabzon as is the province it is located in. Trabzon was the ancient capital of the Greek speaking Komnenos Byzantine Kingdom (1204–1461) within the Pontos—the northeast portion of Anatolia adjacent the Black Sea… Thereafter, Trabzon remained under Turkish rule except for a brief Russian occupation (1916–18) during World War I. borsa kuruculari. Trabzon Museum: Trabzon history - See 108 traveler reviews, 238 candid photos, and great deals for Trabzon, Turkey, at Tripadvisor. 1) Trabzon was controlled by the Russians between April 1916 and October 1917, i.e. Sam Topalidis (Pontic historian) 2018. The see of Trapezus was supposedly founded by St. Andrew the Apostle; Eugenius, its patron saint, was martyred under the Roman emperor Diocletian (reigned 284–305). Although subject to brief periods of domination by the neighbouring Seljuq Turks, Mongols, and Byzantines, the empire based at Trapezus was largely bypassed by both the Seljuqs and the Mongols because of its relative isolation, difficulties of access, and conflict among its enemies. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Easy for visit and walking, located in the city. History Trabzon’s recorded history begins around 746 BC, when Miletus colonists came from Sinop and founded a settlement, Trapezus, with an acropolis on the trápeza (table) of land above the harbour. Trabzon Castle lies in ruins. 2015. Trabzon province is well forested and densely populated. The Walls of Trabzon (or the "Walls of Trebizond") are a series of defensive walls surrounding the old town of the city of Trabzon, northeastern Turkey.The fortifications are sometimes called the Trabzon Castle (Turkish: Trabzon … Hi there, It is historically known in English as Trebizond. It is belived that the name Trabzon stems from the word “Trapezus”.