Japanese Brazilians (Japanese: 日系ブラジル人, Hepburn: Nikkei Burajiru-jin, Portuguese: Nipo-brasileiros, [ˌnipobɾaziˈlejɾus]) are Brazilian citizens who are nationals or naturals of Japanese ancestry or Japanese immigrants living in Brazil. [citation needed], On 1 August 1908, The New York Times remarked that relations between Brazil and Japan at the time were "not extremely cordial", because of "the attitude of Brazil toward the immigration of Japanese labourers. In the late 19th century, Japan suffered a demographic crisis. In 1933 90% of East Asian-origin Brazilians read Japanese publications, including 20 periodicals, 15 magazines, and five newspapers. Kasato Maru is officially considered by historiography the first ship to bring to Brazil Japanese immigrants. Brazil is home to the largest Japanese population outside of Japan, as well as significant European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern populations. [43][44] This apparent contradiction between being and seeming causes conflicts of adaptation for the migrants and their acceptance by the natives.[45]. [8] According to the IBGE, as of 2009 there were approximately 1.6 million people of Japanese descent in Brazil and estimated at just under 1.5 million as of 2014. To solve the labour shortage, the Brazilian elite decided to attract Europeanimmigrants to work on the coffee plantations. Immigration to Brazil during this period was also fueled by the adoption of more restrictive immigration policies in the United States, Canada, and Argentina, previously the principal destinations for immigration in the Western Hemisphere. [65] MEXT-approved hoshukos in Porto Alegre and Salvador have closed. [24], A more recent phenomenon in Brazil is intermarriages between Japanese Brazilians and non-ethnic Japanese. This was the first result of years of discussions, negotiations and conflicts between Brazil and Japan. Marriage of Japanese immigrants at São Paulo state, Brazil. The assimilationist project affected mainly Over 1.8 million people of Japanese descent live in Brazil, 600,000 of them concentrated in Liberdade. All the immigrants reported they spoke exclusively Japanese at home in the first years in Brazil. In Brazil, where the majority of colonial-era residents were African slaves and their children, millions of immigrants have joined a conversation about race and identity that continues today. [61] The Escola Japonesa de Belo Horizonte (ベロ・オリゾンテ日本人学校),[62] and Japanese schools in Belém and Vitória previously existed; all three closed, and their certifications by the Japanese education ministry (MEXT) were revoked on March 29, 2002 (Heisei 14). Japanese immigration to Brazil, Japanese Mc Donalds at Liberdade quarter , in Sao Paulo city, one of the world greatest japanese colonies. [53] Prince Naruhito of Japan arrived in Brazil on 17 June to participate in the celebrations. There were many anonymous denunciations of "activities against national security" arising from disagreements between neighbours, recovery of debts and even fights between children. Brazilians in Japan are usually educated. (2004), This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 04:13. Perfectly written! O Povo Brasileiro, Vol. The high numbers of Brazilian immigrants returning from Japan will probably produce more Japanese speakers in Brazil. In the final vote, a tie with 99 votes in favour and 99 against. From January 2011 to March, it is estimated that 20,000 Brazilian immigrants left Japan. [10] The government and farmers offered to pay European immigrants' passage. A study conducted in the Japanese Brazilian communities of Aliança and Fukuhaku, both in the state of São Paulo, released information on the language spoken by these people. Though people of Japanese descent make up only 0.8% of the country's population, they are the largest Japanese community outside Japan, with over 1.4 million people. Emperor Hirohito. [67] In some areas full-time Japanese schools opened because no local schools existed in the vicinity of the Japanese settlements. At the same time in Australia, the White Australia Policy prevented the immigration of non-whites to Australia. Nowadays 07, 1997 (1997), pp. Many of these immigrants arrived in the 1920s and 1930s. História da discriminação brasileira contra os japoneses sai do limbo, "Influência da aculturação na autopercepção dos idosos quanto à saúde bucal em uma população de origem japonesa", "A Imigração Japonesa do Passado e a Imigração Inversa, Questão Gênero e Gerações Na Economia", Made in Japan. And in 1902, the Italian government had banned subsidized immigration from Italians to Sao Paulo (the largest number of immigrants to Brazil at that time were the Italian). Soon, their debts became very significant. June 18th, 1908, they disembarked from the ship named Kasato Maru in the town of Santos. This Doodle's Reach. The Japanese were able to overcome the difficulties along the years and drastically improve their lives through hard work and education; this was also facilitated by the involvement of the Japanese government in the process of migration. [63], There are also supplementary schools teaching the Japanese language and culture. [66], The Taisho School, Brazil's first Japanese language school, opened in 1915 in São Paulo. Many Japanese Brazilians went to Japan as contract workers due to economic and political problems in Brazil, and they were termed "Dekasegi". The knowledge of the Japanese and Portuguese languages reflects the integration of the Japanese in Brazil over several generations. Portuguese is the third most spoken foreign language in Japan, after Chinese and Korean, and is among the most studied languages by students in the country. The Japanese-Brazilian population are divided into: Japanese immigration to Brazil officially began on June 18, 1908, when the ship Kasato Maru arrived in Sao Paulo, bringing 781 farmers to the country-side of São Paulo. Throughout his stay in Brazil, the Prince was received by a crowd of Japanese immigrants and their descendants. The Japanese community in Brazil, the couple noted, had the infrastructure to absorb new arrivals: neighborhoods where Japanese newspapers, schools and stores were common. Federal Justice of 10ª Vara da Circunscrição Judiciária de, SUZUKI Jr, Matinas. And with the outbreak of World War I, the Japanese ended up being denied entry by several countries. The flow ceased almost entirely in the late 1950s, with nearly 200,000 Japanese settled in the country. [26], In the government's conception, the non-White population of Brazil should disappear within the dominant class of Portuguese Brazilian origin. Resistência e Integração: 100 anos de Imigração Japonesa no Brasil, [ Japoneses e descendentes em Maringá passam de 14 mil, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Tabuchi, Hiroko. From the mid-1920s to the mid-1930s, the heyday of the immigration, boatloads of Japanese immigrants, entire families, offloaded in Brazil's ports almost on a daily basis. In 1942, Brazil terminated Japanese immigration. The immigrants were treated only as a reserve of cheap labour that should be used on coffee plantations and that Brazil should avoid absorbing their cultural influences. About 90% of people displaced were Japanese. The “Liberdade” neighborhood, in the center of the capital of São Paulo, represents the landmark of the Japanese presence in the city. First generation (issei) are 12.51%, second generation (nisei) are 30.85% and fourth generation (yonsei) 12.95%. [17] Many of them became owners of coffee plantations. Japanese Brazilians were prohibited from driving motor vehicles (even if they were taxi drivers), buses or trucks on their property. Indebted and subjected to hours of exhaustive work, often suffering physical violence, the immigrants saw the leak[clarification needed] as an alternative to escape the situation. The drivers employed by Japanese had to have permission from the police. It peaked in the late 1920s and early 1930s, in the face of growing anti-Japanese sentiment in Brazil. Many Japanese Brazilians went to Japan as contract workers due to economic and political problems in Brazil and they were termed "Dekasegi".Working visas were offered to Brazilian Dekasegi in 1990, encouraging more immigration from Brazil. During the Meiji era of Japan, many people from Japan had left their homeland and travelled to (mostly) Brazil, Peru, and Mexico due to the drastic cultural, social and political shifts in Japan at this time. Regarding the use of Japanese at home, 64.3% of Nisei informants from Aliança and 41.5% from Fukuhaku used Japanese when they were children. The Japan Foundation in São Paulo's coordinator of projects in 2003 stated that São Paulo State has about 500 supplementary schools. During World War II, Brazil severed relations with Japan. Nowadays, among the 1.4 million Brazilians of Japanese descent, 28% have some non-Japanese ancestry. Despite their Japanese appearance, Brazilians in Japan are culturally Brazilians, usually only speaking Portuguese, and are treated as foreigners. [1] Since the 1980s, a return migration has emerged of Japanese Brazilians to Japan. Salvar meus dados neste navegador para a próxima vez que eu comentar. The end of feudalism gave room for the mechanized agriculture. At first, Brazilian farmers used African slave labour in the coffee plantations, but in 1850, the slave trade was abolished in Brazil. [citation needed] This way, the mixed-race population should be "whitened" through selective mixing, then a preference for European immigration. Immigrants, as well as most Japanese, were mostly followers of Shinto and Buddhism. During the 1980s, the Japanese economic situation improved and achieved stability. The plan encouraged millions of Europeans, most of them Italians,[11] to migrate to Brazil. The legislation of 1990 was intended to select immigrants who entered Japan, giving a clear preference for Japanese descendants from South America, especially Brazil. I could not resist commenting. Immigration of Japanese workers in Brazil was actually subsidized by São Paulo up until 1921, with around 40,000 Japanese emigrating to Brazil between the years of 1908 and 1925, and 150,000 pouring in during the following 16 years. Other important locations with high concentration of Japanese presence in Brazil are Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul and Pará. To solve the labour shortage, the Brazilian elite decided to attract European immigrants to work on the coffee plantations. Due to the powerful Japanese economy and due to the rapid enrichment of the Nisei, in the last decades Brazilians of Japanese descent achieved a social prestige in Brazil that largely contrasts with the aggression with which the early immigrants were treated in the country. The Kasato Maru [55][56], In São Paulo there are two Japanese publications, the São Paulo Shimbun and the Nikkey Shimbun. Also, everything that the immigrants consumed had to be purchased from the landowner (see truck system). By the end of World War I, the flow of Japanese immigrants to Brazil grew enormously. Japanese migration to Colombia refers to the Japanese diaspora in Colombia.In the early 20th century, Ryôji Noda, secretary consulate in both Peru and Brazil and expert advisor to the Japanese government on immigration to South America, was assigned to survey Colombia.On his return to Japan, he presented a report of his tour of Colombia to the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Japanese immigrants with their planting of potatoes. The first Brazilian-born generation, the Nisei, alternate between the use of Portuguese and Japanese. Making Brazil the home of the largest Japanese population outside of Japan. Coffee farms, which produced the main Brazilian export at the time, began to feel the lack of workers with the drastic decrease in the arrival of the Italians. For Asian [immigrants] there will be allowed each year a number equal to 5% of those residing in the country. Brazilian issei, (first generation of Japanese immigrant), reading newspaper in Romaji, while the shown title is about Kardec spiritism (a French–Brazilian sect) which is quite similar to Shinto and Buddhist principles. . He visited Brasília, São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. In general, during that decade a Brazilian supplementary Japanese school had one or two teachers responsible for around 60 students. Many of the Japanese immigrants took classes of Portuguese and learned about the history of Brazil before migrating to the country. [1], Between the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries, coffee was the main export product of Brazil. [34] Japanese spoken in Brazil is usually a mix of different Japanese dialects, since the Japanese community in Brazil came from all regions of Japan, influenced by the Portuguese language. The government focused on Italians, Jews, and Japanese. Brazilians, second generation after Japanese immigration (sanseis) in rural areas, coffee plantations, São Paulo state, Brazil. Migration History. It insists on giving Brazil a race diametrically opposite to ours". [48], Due to the financial crisis of 2007–2010, many Brazilians returned from Japan to Brazil. In Brazil, on the other hand, there was at that time a labor shortage in the rural area. In this process of forced assimilation the Japanese, more than any other immigrant group, suffered the ethno-cultural persecution imposed during this period. [64], In the 1980s, São Paulo Japanese supplementary schools were larger than those in other communities. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images About 200 materials from the holdings of the National Diet Library are introduced . 1,846 or 15% of Japanese Brazilians from Maringá were working in Japan. "Despite Shortage, Japan Keeps a High Wall for Foreign Labor,", DISCURSO DA PROFA. DRA. Definitely worth exploring when in Liberdade. [52] In 2005, there were an estimated 302,000 Brazilian nationals in Japan, of whom 25,000 also hold Japanese citizenship. Likewise, Brazil, alongside the Japanese American population of the United States, maintains its status as home to the largest Japanese community outside Japan. The Japanese government encouraged the Japanese to go to Brazil as the countryside and Japanese cities were overcrowded, causing poverty and unemployment. Immigrants, although employees, had to confront the rigidity and lack of labour laws. [27] In 1942, the Japanese community who introduced the cultivation of pepper in Tomé-Açu, in Pará, was virtually turned into a "concentration camp". [18] In 1939, research of Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil, from São Paulo, showed that 87.7% of Japanese Brazilians read newspapers in the Japanese language, a high figure for a country with many illiterate people like Brazil at the time. Between the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries, coffee was the main export product of Brazil. In 1907, the Brazilian and the Japanese governments signed a treaty permitting Japanese migration to Brazil. The influx of Japanese descendants from Brazil to Japan was and continues to be large: there are over 300,000 Brazilians living in Japan today, mainly as workers in factories. This time, turning to the Japanese immigrants. No single suspicion of activities of Japanese against "national security" was confirmed. 401. The Japanese immigration was concentrated to São Paulo and, still in 2000, 49.3% of Japanese Brazilians lived in this state. Although first generation immigrants will often not learn Portuguese well or not use it frequently, most second generation are bilingual. In 2000, they were 4%, as a result of the returning of Dekasegis (Brazilians of Japanese descent who work in Japan) to Brazil.[40]. World War II was underway. [47] Nevertheless, in 2002, Brazilians living in Japan sent US$2.5 billion to Brazil. Japanese immigration to Brazil In 1907, the Government of the State of São Paulo authorized Japan 's Imperial Immigration Company to transfer, annually, a certain number of emigrants to Brazil. The police acted without any notice. In comparison, only 14.3% of the third generation, Sansei, reported to speak Japanese at home when they were children. The Jornal Paulista, established in 1947, and the Diário Nippak, established in 1949, are the predecessors of the Nikkey Shimbun. Nishimura was part of the first wave of Japanese immigration to Brazil that began in 1908, when 781 peasant farmers aboard the Kasato Maru steamship arrived in … Because of this, in 1902, Italy enacted Decree Prinetti, prohibiting subsidized emigration to Brazil.[12]. Today Brazilians of Japanese descent number 1.3 million, by far the world's largest group of Nikkeijin ("overseas people of Japanese descent"). [9] More recently, a trend of interracial marriage has taken hold among Brazilians of Japanese descent, with the racial intermarriage rate approximated at 50% and increasing. A new era was about to start for Brazilian culture and ethnicity, but permanence was not first and foremost in the mind of the newly arrived workers who had responded to the appeal of a Japan-Brazil immigration … [14] Also, Japanese immigration to the United States had been barred by the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907. After World War II. Brazilian landowners had sought a more malleable group of immigrants after European immigrant laborers had proven uncontrollable. The history of Japanese immigration to Brazil begins in 1908, with the arrival of the first immigrants officially recognized as such by the Brazilian government. In 1992 there were 319 supplementary Japanese language schools in Brazil with a total of 18,782 students, 10,050 of them being female and 8,732 of them being male. Most of the immigrants were over 60 years old, because the Japanese immigration to Brazil has ended since the mid-20th century.[36]. This group of 790 Japanese became the first of several waves of emigrants who made new lives for themselves in Peru, some nine years before emigration to Brazil began. [15] The first Japanese immigrants (790 people – mostly farmers) came to Brazil in 1908 on the Kasato Maru. At the end of the war, the Japanese were sharply divided over the defeat of Japan. Jeffrey Lesser's work has shown the complexities of integration both during the Vargas era, and more recently during the dictatorship (1964–1984). By the 1930s, Japanese industrialisation had significantly boosted the population. Newspapers in Italian or German were also advised to cease production, as Italy and Germany were Japan's allies in the war. Coordinated by Saburo Kumabe, the group was located in the interior of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Municipalities with highest concentration From most of the Japanese community in Brazil, 90% live in cities. [49], In Japan, many Japanese Brazilians suffer prejudice because they do not know how to speak Japanese fluently. [27] Japanese Brazilians were arrested for "suspicious activity" when they were in artistic meetings or picnics. For the whole Brazil, with over 1.4 million people of Japanese descent, the largest percentages were found in the states of São Paulo (1.9% of Japanese descent), Paraná (1.5%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (1.4%). Many Brazilians are subjected to hours of exhausting work, earning a small salary by Japanese standards. Centenary of Japanese Immigration to Brazil. Northern Brazil (excluding Pará) saw its Japanese population increase from 2,341 in 1960 (0.2% of the total population) to 54,161 (0.8%) in 2000. 31% elementary education; 30% secondary school and 30% higher education. [46] Most Brazilians go to Japan attracted by the recruiting agencies (legal or illegal) in conjunction with the factories. A Japanese-Brazilian is Brazilian citizen with Japanese ascendants. Emperor Hirohito was not the Sun King anymore. In 1990, the Japanese government authorized the legal entry of Japanese and their descendants until the third generation in Japan. [27], During the National Constituent Assembly of 1946, Rio Miguel Couto Filho proposed Amendments to the Constitution as follows: "It is prohibited the entry of Japanese immigrants of any age and any origin in the country". In 1907, the Government of the State of São Paulo authorized Japan's Imperial Immigration Company to transfer, annually, a certain amount of emigrants to Brazil.On June 18, 1908, arrived at Santos' harbor the Japanese vessel Kasato Maru with the first group of immigrants composed of 165 families, a total of 786 people. Japan has two newspapers in the Portuguese language, besides radio and television stations spoken in that language. Japanese Immigration To Brazil. [42], Because of their Japanese ancestry, the Japanese Government believed that Brazilians would be more easily integrated into Japanese society. This probably reflects that through contact with the younger generations of the family, who speak mostly Portuguese, many immigrants also began to speak Portuguese at home. Those who do not live with a Japanese-born relative usually speak Portuguese more often. Cities and prefectures with the most Brazilians in Japan are: Hamamatsu, Aichi, Shizuoka, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Gunma. A train taking Japanese immigrants from Santos to São Paulo (1935). More recently, intermarriage with Catholics also contributed to the growth of Catholicism in the community. Protestant religions were the second most followed (6% of Nisei, 6% of Sansei, 2% of Yonsei and 1% of Issei) and next was Buddhism (5% of Nisei, 3% of Issei, 2% of Sansei and 1% of Yonsei). This time, the Brazilian ambassador in Washington, D.C., Carlos Martins Pereira e Sousa, encouraged the government of Brazil to transfer all the Japanese Brazilians to "internment camps" without the need for legal support, in the same manner as was done with the Japanese residents in the United States. Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign peoples to reside permanently. The government, then, started to act on these communities of foreign origin to force them to integrate into a "Brazilian culture" with Portuguese roots. [57], Tatiane Matheus of Estadão stated that in the pre-World War II period the Nippak Shimbun, established in 1916; the Burajiru Jiho, established in 1917; and two newspapers established in 1932, the Nippon Shimbun and the Seishu Shino, were the most influential Japanese newspapers. In the future it may be nice also to cover more details on the second wave in the 1950/60s, their motives etc as these are the parents of the current generation. Meanwhile, in Japan, the abolition of the feudal han system plunged large groups of agricultural workers into poverty and caused many to look overseas in search of a new life, particularly to the Americas. Brazil becoming one of the few countries in the world to accept immigrants from Japan. On 22 October 1923, representative Fidélis Reis produced another bill on the entry of immigrants, whose fifth article was as follows: "The entry of settlers from the black race into Brazil is prohibited. This is the center of the biggest Japanese immigrant community in the world. Group of Japanese descendants with Brazilians working resting after tree cutting, to clear areas for coffee plantations in Brazil, '50s and '60s. Under Getúlio Vargas’s nationalistic policies, a 1934 immigration law severely limited the entry of the … IBGE. On June 18, 1908, it arrived at the Port of Santos bringing 165 families who came to work in the coffee plantations of the west of São Paulo. In consequence, the non-white population would, gradually, achieve a desirable White phenotype. [18], In the first seven years, 3,434 more Japanese families (14,983 people) arrived. Of the schools, 111 were in São Paulo State and 54 were in Paraná State. The colony, located at Fazenda Santo Antônio, lasted only five years, because there were no farmers or people with a tradition of cultivating and caring for the land, failing to actually create stability for themselves. In 1991, 0.6% of Brazilians between 0 and 14 years old were of Japanese descent. He broke the protocol of the Japanese Monarchy, which prohibits physical contact with people, and greeted the Brazilian people. As of 2003, in southern Brazil there are hundreds of Japanese supplementary schools. A digital exhibition about Japanese emmigration to Brazil. Japanese Brazilians could not travel the country without safe conduct issued by the police; over 200 Japanese schools were closed and radio equipment was seized to prevent transmissions on short wave from Japan. For example: in 1960, there were 532 Japanese Brazilians in Bahia, while in 2000 they were 78,449, or 0.6% of the state's population. The first Japanese immigrants arrived near Sao Paulo, Brazil, 112 years ago. However, in 2003, the figure dropped to 58.5% in Aliança and 33.3% in Fukuhaku. Working visas were offered to Brazilian Dekasegis in 1990, encouraging more immigration from Brazil. they had corresponded with japanese residents in sao paulo and marriage proposals resulted from their letters. Reasons for immigration Around 33% of the Japanese supplementary schools in southeastern Brazil are in the city of São Paulo. [19], The land owners in Brazil still had a slavery mentality. "[23], Japanese children born in Brazil were educated in schools founded by the Japanese community. . The Brazilian magazine "O Malho" in its edition of 5 December 1908 issued a charge of Japanese immigrants with the following legend: "The government of São Paulo is stubborn. The US had banned non-white immigration from some parts of the world[13] on the basis that they would not integrate into society; this Exclusion Clause, of the 1924 Immigration Act, specifically targeted the Japanese. [50], The children of Dekasegi Brazilians encounter difficulties in Japanese schools. [3] However, the overall Japanese population in Brazil is shrinking, secondary to a decreased birth rate and an aging population; return immigration to Japan,[37][38][39] as well as intermarriage with other races and dilution of ethnic identity. [citation needed] The formation of "ethnic cysts" among immigrants of non-Portuguese origin prevented the realization of the whitening project of the Brazilian population. The Sakura Maru carried Japanese families from Yokohama to Peru and arrived on April 3, 1899 at the Peruvian port city of Callao. It should not be confused with the colonisation of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves.. 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