Bessarabia Governorate or Bessarabia Oblast was a governorate of the Russian Empire from 1812–1871. CHISINAU. [12] As of 1920, an estimated ten percent of men and one percent of women were able to read and write. Mob. Director: Valeriu Vasilică One of the guests opined that it is easier to write a general history textbook than to write the history of the native village. The Russians used the name "Bessarabia" for the whole region rather than the southern area. This was followed by six years of warfare, which were concluded by the Treaty of Bucharest (1812), by which the Ottoman Empire acknowledged the Russian annexation of the province. The war left an imprint not only on the destinies of people, but also on political processes. [14] In the first wave of violence, which was associated with Easter, 49 Jews were killed, large numbers of Jewish women were raped and 1,500 homes were damaged. En 1914 les patriotes roumains ont cependant davantage les yeux tournés vers la Transylvanie que vers la Bessarabie et un rapprochement est perceptible entre la Russie et la Roumanie. August 1914 begann eine noch schwierigere Zeit für Bessarabien und seine ethnischen Minderheiten. Era analfabetă exact în aceeaşi proporţie. Initially an oblast and following 1871 a governorate (Russian: губе́рния, romanized: guberniya), it included the eastern part of the Principality of Moldavia along with the neighboring Ottoman-ruled territories annexed by Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest following the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812). "), a Romanian patriotic song, which made Kharuzin, the governor of Bessarabia, to order the closure of the newspaper only nine months after its first issue. The Jews in Bessarabia; between the world wars 1914-1940, ed: David Vinitzky, Jerusalem-Tel Aviv 1973 (2 Volumes, 728 pages, H, E) Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Bessarabia (1973) This material is made available by JewishGen, … Elle est délimitée par l'Adriatique, la mer Égée, la mer Noire et au nord, le Danube et son affluent, la Save. According to the information portal “Ruskii mir”, the scientific conference “World War I in the past of southern Bessarabia”, held to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the end of World War I of 1914 – 1918, was organized by the Consultancy and Information Center “Dialog” in cooperation with the Scientific Society of Bulgarians in the Republic of Moldova within the project “Together we Restore Memory” that is implemented in Gagauzia and Taraclia district with support from the Foundation “Russkii mir”. Monuments in memory of war victims appeared in some of the villages in southern Bessarabia, while this formed part of Romania for a short period of time. Tsarist Russia. [citation needed] In 1834, Romanian was banned in schools and government facilities, and soon, books, the press, and churches despite 80% of the population being Romanian. [24], Archbishop Irinarh Popov (1844–1858) tried to promote Russian nationalism and loyalty to the tsar and brought clerics from Russia. Depuis l’annexion de Novgorod en 1478 jusqu’à l’expansion en Asie centrale et aux dépens de la Chine au XIXe siècle, la Russie n’a cessé de s’étendre et d’intégrer des populations non russes. [8] However, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Russia took southern Bessarabia, Alexander Gorchakov justifying this as a "matter of national honour" for Russia and arguing that the territory was ceded in 1856 to Moldavia, not to Romania and that the Russian guarantee of territorial integrity was directed against Turkish claims. More than 1,000 persons from Gagauzian and Bulgarian villages were killed, wounded or went missing between August 1914 and May 1915 alone. [24], Following the 1905 Russian Revolution, the church decided to allow the usage of Romanian by the village priests and the re-establishment of the eparchy printing press, which would publish religious literature and of a newspaper. The eastern part of the Principality of Moldavia was conquered by the troops of the Russian Czar Alxander I in the Russo-Turkish War between 1806 and 1812. The moderates, led by landowner Pavel Dicescu, organized around the Societatea pentru Cultură Naţională ("The Society for National Culture"), argued for the usage of Romanian as a language of instruction in schools, but against social reforms. Le territoire est organisé en 1812 en kraï de Moldavie et Bessarabie autonome, gouverné par le boyard moldave Scarlat Sturdza , puis devient en 1828 l’oblast de Bessarabie, et en 1871 un gouvernement qui existe jusqu’en 1917. Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008. En 1925, des jeunes émigrés de Bessarabie, tous juifs, tous communistes, fondaient une « Association des émigrants bessarabiens en France ». Analysis by Dionis Cenușa, From more integrity to large impunity. Région d’Europe qui correspond plus ou moins à l'actuelle Moldavie. [12], The radicals (national democrats), mostly students educated at Russian universities and influenced by socialist revolutionaries, wanted a real national awakening, as well as social justice. Over the next generations, the Jewish population of Bessarabia grew significantly. Bessarabie \bɛ.sa.ʁa.bi\ féminin. Even if WWI didn’t match the official Soviet ideology, the population kept the memory of the participants in that war. Territoires cédés avant 1914. (S nami Bog! La plupart d'entre eux vécurent la défaite russe. ", Annexation of Eastern Moldavia by the Russian Empire, "The pogrom that transformed 20th century Jewry", "Governments or Provinces of the Former Russian Empire: Bessarabia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bessarabia_Governorate&oldid=985927718, States and territories established in 1812, States and territories disestablished in 1917, 1810s establishments in the Russian Empire, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia without a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 October 2020, at 19:46. “The people were struck from two directions, figuratively speaking, because many inhabitants in the 1940s moved to live over the Prut and the people during World War II were summoned to fight under the colors of both of the belligerent armies. Genre/Form: History: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Popovici, Andrei, 1895-Political status of Bessarabia. L’empire, à la fin du XIXe siècle, est grand comme 44 fois la France. ») Hymne Molitva russkikh (1816 – 1833) Hymne des tsars (1833 – 1917) L'Empire russe en 1914. They founded a newspaper called Basarabia (first issue on 24 May 1906) led by Constantin Stere, which called for autonomy of Bessarabia and more rights to protect their language and culture, while making clear that they do not want secession from the Russian Empire. Спасибо за понимание! The new emperor quickly made peace with both France and Britain and restored normal relations with Austria. Jusqu'à la fin du mois d'août, l'état-major dirigé par le général Joffre, commandant en chef des armées, ne cerne pas l'ampleur de la manœuvre entreprise par les Allemands en Belgique. Jusqu'en 1922, le gouvernement les considérant comme des sujets de pays belligérants va soumettre ces personnes à des contrôles stricts visant en particulier leurs déplacements. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Jewish population made up to 40% of Chisinau. , « Dieu est avec nous ! 2010-06-30T14:43:25Z DieBuche 744x878 (84219 Bytes) Try to fix SVG using scour; 2006-05-20T19:36:14Z Zserghei 744x878 (186652 Bytes) a better version of [[:Image:Bessarabia.svg]] [[Category:Maps of Moldova]]; Uploaded with derivativeFX En 1925, des jeunes émigrés de Bessarabie, tous juifs, tous communistes, fondaient une « Association des émigrants bessarabiens en France ». Also, few of the urban dwellers were Moldavians, in 1912, 37.2% being Jewish, 24.4% Russian, 15.8% Ukrainian, with just 14.2% Moldavian. The 25 Mother colonies were founded between 1814 and 1842. [8], In 1877, the Russian Empire and Romania signed a treaty by the terms of which, Romania and Russia were allies against the Ottoman Empire, while Russia recognized Romania's independence and guaranteed its territorial integrity after the war. Dans le sens le plus courant, il désigne la partie orientale de la Moldavie historique, située entre le Prut et le Dniestr, aujourdhui partagée entre la Moldavie et l'Ukraine. En entrant en guerre du côté des Alliés en août 1916, la Roumanie sait qu’elle doit oublier la Bessarabie. One of the monuments was erected in Etulia village by a participant in the war, who returned to his native village. [12] In fact, in 1899, a visitor found no Romanian books in the Chişinău public library. When again annexed by the Russian Empire in 1878, these there were lumped together as one Ismail County, thus from 1878 till 1917, there were 8 counties. [Бессарабія] (Map: Bessarabia. In 1818, a special autonomous region was created, which had both Romanian and Russian as languages used in the local administration. Autonomy of the region was retracted in 1829, with the new constitution written by the governor of New Russia and Bessarabia, Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov. Le gouvernement de Bessarabie (en russe : Бессарабская губерния) est une division administrative de lEmpire russe créée à partir dun territoire pris en 1812, sous le règne du tsar Alexandre Ier, aux principautés danubiennes vassales de lEmpire ottoman, par le traité de Bucarest dont les articles 4 et 5 précisent la surface de 45 630 km2 (40 096,6 verstes²), la démographie avec 482 630 habitants (moldaves2 à 87 %) et le nombre de l… Une construction impériale d’autant plus facile qu’elle s’est faite dans une continuité territoriale. Actes de décès de Bessarabie (maintenant Moldavie), 1858 à 1914 Cette base de données contient les actes de décès juifs de l’ancienne guberniya russe de Bessarabie de 1858 à 1914. Further rioting erupted in October 1905. ("Wake up, Romanian! IPN поддерживается от рекламы. August 1914 begann eine noch schwierigere Zeit für Bessarabien und seine ethnischen Minderheiten. Mona May Karff, née Mona Ratner le 20 octobre 1914 en Bessarabie et morte le 10 janvier 1998 à New York, est une joueuse d'échecs américaine.Sept fois championne des États-Unis (six fois de 1938 à 1953 et en 1974), elle reçut le titre de maître international féminin lors de la création du titre en 1950. In 1999, his 79-year-old son restored the obelisk that suffered serious damage during tens of years. In the autonomous unit, as in the neighboring Taraclia, new researches appear and become a valuable contribution to national historiography,” stated Duminică. Bessarabie \bɛ.sa.ʁa.bi\ féminin. It declared Bessarabia’s independence on Jan. 24, 1918, and voted to unite with Romania in December. Alphabetical Book of Deaths 1901-1914 The fourth entry on the left page is the listing of the death of the 2 day old female listed in the 1904 Register of Deaths. [15] The incident focused worldwide negative attention on the persecution of Jews in Russia. Trompés par des renseignements faux ou imprécis, les militaires français sous-estiment le nombre de divisions en train de fondre sur leur aile gauche. Unlike most of the rest of the Russian Empire, in Bessarabia, Jews were allowed to settle in fairs and cities. Mulțumim. Washington, D.C., Pub. [1], Before the Russian annexation, the territory had no particular name, Moldavia being traditionally divided into Ţara de Sus (the Upper Lands, the mountainous area of the Carpathians) and Ţara de Jos (the Lower Lands, the plains which included this territory). Bloody echo of war But this is how, by personifying history, the historical memory of the people is formed. The event was staged as part of the project “Together we Restore Memory” that is supported by public organizations based in Gagauzia and all over Moldova. File history. Thus, by the 1880s only 23 schools remained. JewishGen.org Volunteers, comp. On the occasion of this jubilee, Ceadir-Lunga town hosted a scientific conference. The entry list the record number of the death, the names of the people who died and the date of death. Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the north and east and the Prut River on the west and the Black Sea on the south. Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the north and east and the Prut River on the west and the Black Sea on the south. “World War I had a number of particularities: machine guns were used for the first time during the military operations, nocturnal bombardments of the civil population were staged for the first time and poisonous chemical substances were used also for the first time. membres des amicales régimentaires, unis depuis 1996 à Berlin. Scientific researcher of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova Emilia Bankova provided information about compatriots from Korten village, while native place researcher Feodor Curu about compatriots from Gaidarly village. Bessarabia is a country of rich rolling plains, with good natural boundaries-the Danube, the Black Sea, the Dniester and the Pruth. American Jews began large-scale organized financial help, and assisted in emigration. Dear buyers from Canada and Australia, delivery to your countries sometimes can take more time, it happens (not often, but there were cases). The so-called Romanian Old Kingdom (a consolidation of the principalities of Moldova and Valachia) was not established in a political-territorial way until the middle of the 19th century and it remained a small state at the edge of Europe in the subsequent decades. [11], As a consequence of Russification policy, Bessarabia was the most backward of the western provinces of the Russian Empire. Écrit par Yann RICHARD • 376 mots • 1 média La localité de Chisinau est apparue en 1466 dans la principauté de Moldavie. 2010-06-30T14:43:25Z DieBuche 744x878 (84219 Bytes) Try to fix SVG using scour; 2006-05-20T19:36:14Z Zserghei 744x878 (186652 Bytes) a better version of [[:Image:Bessarabia.svg]] [[Category:Maps of Moldova]]; Uploaded with derivativeFX It is probably easier to speak about the interests of the world powers and political ideologies than to obtain evidence of the heroic or tragic past of the forerunners. The boyars of Bessarabia protested against the annexation, arguing that the Ottoman Empire had no right to cede a territory that was not theirs in the first place (Moldavia being only a vassal, not an Ottoman province), but this did not prevent the Sultan from signing the treaty in May 1812. [10], According to the Treaty of Berlin (1878), Romania gained Dobruja as a compensation for the loss of Southern Bessarabia. Bessarabia Governorate or Bessarabia Oblast was a governorate of the Russian Empire from 1812–1871. Most of the contributors of the newspaper fled to Iaşi afterwards. Textul a fost expediat către Redactor. The area of the region is 45,600 sq km. The project of the commemorative complex in Taraclia was designed. Bessarabie (roumain : Basarabia ; russe : Бессарабия, Bessarabia) est un nom désignant tour à tour plusieurs territoires des anciennes principautés roumaines, au sud-est de lEurope, et provenant de la dynastie valaque des Bassarab. von der Bismarckschen Außenpolitik, seine militärische Absicherung gegen Osten verloren hatte, wurde über Nacht zum Feind des Zarenreiches erklärt. Romania became independent in 1878, but millions of ethnic Romanians lived outside its borders and as such it had aspirations toward Transylvania, as well as Bessarabia. Das frühere Bessarabien deckt sich heute weitgehend mit dem westlich des Dnister liegenden Teil der Republik Moldau, nur der Süden sowie der äußerste Norden gehören zur Ukraine. [6], Initially, the purpose of the colonization policy was unrelated to the ethnic makeup, being to increase the population of the rather sparsely populated area, in order to better exploit its resources. GERMAN COLONIES IN BESSARABIA Reg = Region or Province (Gubernia) Other Identification = District, Rayon, Kreis, Okrug, etc (District may also be nearby larger city or this field may be the "see" reference.) Original upload log []. Observant l'évolution du conflit en 1914 et 1915, les responsables politiques roumains, tout en menant une politique attentiste, sont cependant fermement convaincus de la nécessité d'entrer tôt ou tard dans le conflit pour « délivrer leurs frères subissant la tyrannie austro-hongroise ». The Jews in Bessarabia; between the world wars 1914-1940, ed: David Vinitzky, Jerusalem-Tel Aviv 1973 (2 Volumes, 728 pages, H, E) Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Bessarabia (1973) This material is made available by JewishGen, … [2], The Kishinev pogrom was an anti-Jewish riot that took place in Kishinev, then the capital of the Bessarabia Governorate in the Russian Empire, on April 19 and 20, 1903. When the Russian invitation came to re-settle in Bessarabia, more than 1,500 families made the move between 1814-1815. En 1914, la France est en guerre contre la Triple Alliance, Allemagne, Autriche et Empire ottoman. The new political circumstances in the interwar period caused a wave of immigration of the population of Gagauzia to the countries of Latin America, mainly Brazil. Elle passa au xvi e siècle sous le contrôle de l'Empire ottoman, puis en 1812, de l'Empire russe, avec le rôle de centre administratif de la province de Bessarabie. The historian also presented the hypothesis that World War I hampered the formation of the Gagauz conscience, noting that if the Gagauz villages had avoided 22 years of Romanian citizenship and had immediately become part of the USSR, the people of Gagauzia would have obtained autonomy in the 1920s, but would have received the forced Soviet collectivization and the repression of the 1920-1930 as a “bonus” for this. it der Kriegserklärung Deutschlands an Russland am 1. The Moldavian boyars protested against the reforms, which decreased their own powers, but their protests were not well organized and they were mostly ignored. Le gouvernement de Bessarabie (en russe : Бессарабская губерния) est une division administrative de lEmpire russe créée à partir dun territoire pris en 1812, sous le règne du tsar Alexandre Ier, aux principautés danubiennes vassales de lEmpire ottoman, par le traité de Bucarest dont les articles 4 et 5 précisent la surface de 45 630 km2 (40 096,6 verstes²), la démographie avec 482 630 habitants (moldaves2 à 87 %) et le nombre de l… "Surtout, ils n'intègrent pas que les unités alllemandes de première ligne ont été puissamment renfor… Das frühere Bessarabien deckt sich heute weitgehend mit dem westlich des Dnister liegenden Teil der Republik Moldau, nur der Süden sowie der äußerste Norden gehören zur Ukraine. Some Moldavian boyar families were however integrated in the Russian nobility, but most of the nobles of Bessarabia were foreigners: in 1911, there were 468 noble families in Bessarabia, of which only 138 were Moldavian. De nombreux sujets ottomans résident alors en France. Sent to Bessarabia in 1914. An “unjust” war The event involved several dozen scientists, researchers of the native place and representatives of the local authorities of Chisinau, Gagauz-Yeri and Taraclia district. Between 1918 and 1940 Bessarabia formed part of Romania; from 1940 to 1991 it was in the USSR. The given changes could not avoid Bessarabia that, after the failed attempt to create an independent Moldovan state, became a part of Romania. The Pre-War Crisis, 1912-1914 BARBARA JELAVICH the year from the conclusion of the treaty of Bucharest in August 191 3 until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Romania's diplomatic position was stronger than it had been in any recent period.1 After a victorious 'war and an advantageous peace, the Romanian government, with A table of pogroms from 1903 to 1906: History of Jews in Bessarabia : General: The Myth of No Return: Jewish Return Migration to Eastern Europe, 1881-1914 : History of Jews in Bessarabia: Jonathan Sarna The authors studied hundreds of documents from the national archives and the archives of Romania and Russia. [16], There was no Moldavian political party or movement in Bessarabia until 1905, when two major groups were founded. This deprived it of chances of being taken into account by the official historical sciences. 22 octobre 1721 – 14 septembre 1917 (195 ans, 10 mois et 23 jours) Drapeau Armoiries Devise en russe: Съ нами Богъ! This image is a derivative work of the following images: File:Bessarabia_1914.svg licensed with PD-self . [18], According to Bessarabian historian Ștefan Ciobanu, at the beginning of the 19th century the ethnic Romanians (Moldavians) proportion was approximately 95% (1810), not including the territories formerly under direct Turkish administration (Budjak and Khotyn), which also purportedly had a Romanian majority. Between 1918 and 1940 Bessarabia formed part of Romania; from 1940 to 1991 it was in the USSR. Tel/fax: +373-22 93 00 73 Many family stories about the death of relatives entered the people’s music folklore. “It was due to political circumstances. Поддержи свободную прессу! Despite being a larger territory, Romanians considered it an unfair exchange and accepted it reluctantly, because there was no other alternative. Das Deutsche Reich, das durch das Abweichen. The country was part of the Triple Alliance between 1883 and 1914 (initially Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia, later also Italy and Romania) under whic… 100% Original! [1], After the annexation, the local boyars, led by Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni, the Metropolitan of Chişinău and Hotin, petitioned for self-rule and the establishment of a civil government based on the Moldavian traditional laws. Afterward, Bugeac was affected by the famine of 1946 – 1947 and the repression. Neu Kureni Bess Kischinew Kischinew 1914 C-6 e aka Coreni Noi Neu Mariewka Bess Bender Mathildendor1925 C-6 e aka Marianca Noua ("bei Marinca de Sus" in 1995) Neu Mathildendorf Bess Bender Mathildendor1907 C-7 e aka Saratica Noua and Nowoselka 120 )Region bounded by the middle and lower Dnister River in the north and east, the Prut River in the west, and the mouth of the Danube River and the Black Sea in the south. En entrant en guerre du côté des Alliés en août 1916, la Roumanie sait qu’elle doit oublier la Bessarabie. The researches during the past few years passed to a new level. [2], Integration within the Russian Empire continued with the introduction of the zemstva in 1869. Некоторые функции могут быть заблокированы, отключите модуль ADS Blocker . [25], Coordinates: 47°00′20″N 28°51′27″E / 47.0056°N 28.8575°E / 47.0056; 28.8575, Philip Ernest Schoenberg, "The American Reaction to the Kishinev Pogrom of 1903. IPN note: Bessarabia was within the Russian Empire from 1812 to 1918, though from 1856 to 1878 Budzhak was under Romanian rule. [2], Bessarabia had an area of 45,630 km², more than the rest of Moldavia and a population between 240,000 and 360,000, most of them being Romanian-speaking Moldavians. [23] The original terms for county were Russian: tsynut, uyezd, Romanian: ţinut, judeţ. But the interest in the 1914 – 1918 period is restored and Gagauzia becomes one of the centers of this process. Bessarabia, like most European bones of contention, is a synthesis of her own history; nor can we understand her present problems without a glance at that history. Although this system was meant to increase the participation of the locals in civic affairs, it was run by Russians and other non-Moldavian functionaries brought from across the Empire.[5]. World War I ended exactly 100 years ago, on November 11, 1918. Écrit par Yann RICHARD • 376 mots • 1 média La localité de Chisinau est apparue en 1466 dans la principauté de Moldavie. Mais la «camarilla» impérialiste de Vienne s'aliéna le peuple roumain par sa politique d'oppression en Transylvanie (3 millions de Roumains, contre 3/4 de million en Bessarabie russe).